cariology: saliva, diet, fluoride

  1. What needs to be present on tooth surface for acid to form?
    • fermetable carbohydrate
    • and cariogenic plaque
  2. Resting pH _____ with tooth surface.
    can vary......
  3. Plaque within an active carious lession has lower or higher resting pH than plaque on inactive carious lesions.
  4. single sucrose rinse can cause _______ lasting _______ and several hours.
    • a. demineralization
    • b. 20 minutes
  5. How do you get pH back to baseline values?
    have acids diffuse out of the plaque
  6. Describe the Vipeholm Hospital.
    • evidence linking diet and caries
    • mentally handicapped individuals
    • 6 experimental groups
    • vary quanity and frequency of sticky or non-sticky sugar intake was studied
  7. Describe the animal experiments with the rat and bacteria.
    • rats, who had no bacteria in their mouths, were fed a cariogenic diet, caries did not develop
    • compare cariogenicity of foods
  8. What are the monosaccharies of sugar?
    • glucose/dextrose
    • fructose
    • galactose
  9. What are these disacchardies: sucrose, maltose, lactose?
    • sucrose: glucose + fructose
    • maltose: glucose + glucose
    • lactose: glucose + galactose
  10. What are the different categories for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES)?
    • 1. intrinsic sugars: reside inside cellular structure
    • sugars w/in fruits, vegies, grains
    • 2. extrinsic sugars: reside outside of cellular structure
    • added sugars, processed fruits
  11. What are starches?
    • long glucose chains
    • likelihood of fermentation: slim
    • oral motor limitations: pocketing
    • cooked starched with sugar
  12. what are the hydrolyzed starch products?
    • glucose syrups (liquid glucose)
    • maltodextrins (glucose polymers)
  13. what are the high-fructose corn syrup?
    • hydrolyzed corn starch followed by chemical isomerization
    • a blend of glucose, fructose, and oligosaccharides
  14. What are cariogenic?
    • glucose and fructose
    • mixed with short chain glucose units: adherence properties and susceptible to fermentation
    • liquid energy: not as efficiently organized
  15. What are some advice to pregnant and nursing mothers?
    • breast-feeding recommended
    • stop bottle feeding by 1st year
    • don't add sugar or honey to baby foods
    • no transfer of pacifier from mother to child
  16. What are some advice for young children?
    • quality snacks with reduced sugar
    • only water at bed time
  17. What are advices to chronically sick children?
    • strict dietary control
    • oral hygiene
    • fluoride supplementation
    • fissure sealants
  18. What are advices for patients with dry mouth?
    sugarless sweets, gums, water, and mouth lubricants
  19. What is the dietary misconceptions?
    • only refined sugars are harmful
    • honey - health "natural sugar"
  20. What should be identified on food labels?
    • starches, sugars, sugar substitutes
    • carogenicity of components
  21. What are the nutritional recommendations for good health?
    • enjoy your food
    • eat a variety of different foods
    • eat the right amount to be a health weight
    • eat plenty of foods rich in starch and fiber
    • eat plenty of fruits and veggies
    • don't eat too many food containing lots of fat
    • don't have sugary foods and drinks too often
    • if you drink alcohol, drink sensibly
  22. What are the food and drinks with low potential for dental caries?
    • bread
    • pasta, rice, starchy food
    • cheese, fibrous foods
    • low sugar breakfast cereals
    • fresh fruit
    • peantus
    • sugar-free chewing gum
    • water, milk, sugar-free drinks
    • tea coffee unsweetened
  23. Quantity and ______ of cariogenic food has a big impact on caries disease.
  24. List fluoride ingestion and dental flurosis.
    • Dental fluorosis: gel, paste, mouthwash, gels, foam, garnism
    • Fluoride ingestion: fluoridated water, fluoride supplements, food and fluoride
  25. prior to 1980, thought that fluoride work was through _____.
  26. The optimal amount of fluoride in water is ______. why tap water?
    • 1 ppm
    • inexpensive, cost-effective, potential to reach lots of people
  27. what is mottling?
    fluoride shown up on teeth.
  28. How does fluoride help?
    • reduces the rate of demineralization
    • enhances the mineral uptake
    • delays the progression of lesions
    • inhibits caries activity through bacterial inhibiton.
  29. Chemically, how does fluoride work?
    • Forms fluoroapatite
    • fluoroapatie is less soluable than hydroxyapatite
    • newly erupted teeth takes up for fluoride because of bigger pores
  30. in bottle water, there is ____ amount of fluoride.
    • varied amount
    • typically very low concentration
  31. What does dietary fluoride provide? why made?
    • provides moderal dose systemic fluoride
    • designed to take place of fluoridated water
    • can be effective in selected populations
  32. Generally, how much fluoride should a these children have: 0-6 months, 6mon-3 yrs, 3-6 yrs, more than 6 yrs
    • 0-6 months: none
    • 6mon-3 yrs: 0.25mg or <0.3 ppm
    • 3-6 yrs: 0.5mg-0.25 mg or 0.3-0.6 ppm
    • more than 6 yrs: 0.5-1 mg or 0.3-0.6 ppm
  33. Fluoride dentifrice. amount? example?
    • about 1000 ppm
    • young children are recommended small "pea-size"
    • ex. prevident 5000 ppm
  34. OTC Rinses and gels. Types? amount?
    • OTC rinses: 226 ppm
    • Prescription rinses: 1000 ppm
    • home use gels: 1000ppm
  35. Profesionally applied products. Types? Amounts?
    • office gels and foams: 9000-12000 ppm
    • fluoride varnish: 22,000 ppm
    • dental composites: slow release fluoride. for rampant carries
  36. some hidden sources of ingested fluoride.
    • soups, cereals, rice, pasta, kool-aid, juice concentrated, infant formulas
    • beverages: juices, soft drinks, tea
    • foods: seafood, processed chicken, infant cereals
  37. very low F beverages.
    • milk
    • breast milk
    • herbal teas
    • bottle water
  38. What is acute F toxicity?
    • Toxic effects at 5mg/kg body weight: nausea and vomiting, 1-2 ounces of toothpaste
    • leath dose 15 mg F/kg body weight in children : 5 ounces of toothpaste
  39. What is physiology and toxicological aspects of acute fluoride toxicity?
    • absorption: fast through mostly stomach
    • elimination: kidney - fecal less that 10%
    • distribution: water compartments - all over
    • deposited in bone and developing teeth and thru blood flow thru pulp with retention in infant skeletal structure as high as 80% and in adults about 50%
  40. what is skeletal fluorosis?
    • debilitating bone disease - brittle, malformed long bones
    • how? long term exposure to inhaled fluoride. 20-80mg/day for more than 10 years
    • chronic exposure to 4-8 ppm water F can cause change in bone density
    • rarely seen in US
  41. Is it well-known how F affects bone?
    • No.
    • it may affects cortical and trabecular bone differently
  42. Describes dental fluorosis.
    • It can occur in primary and permanent teeth
    • Cause: excessive F ingestion during tooth development
    • Description: intrinsice, permanent stain (usually white and can be dark brown or orange)
    • severe cases: tooth enamel can be damaged
    • can happen even with very low F intake
  43. Describe the 4 scores of dental fluorosis.
    • Score 1: earliest sign - thin, white, opaque lines across tooth surface
    • Score 2: opaque white lines more pronounced. merge to form wider bands
    • score 3: entire tooth exhibits cloudy, white opaque areas
    • score 4: entirely white opaque enamel, part of the enamel may break away
  44. What is the concentration of dental fluorosis in teeth? the amount and duration?
    • greatest at the surface - enamel and pulp
    • level in different layers of enamel reflect exposure during tooth development
    • different teeth can be affected: upper central incisor - 15-30 months of age while children under 7 - minimize F ingestion
  45. what is the risk factors for dental Fluorosis?
    • high F level in water
    • dietary F supplements
    • F products - early or overuse
    • higher income family
    • amoxicillin in infancy
  46. The saliva composition and flow rate are important host factors that modify ______ process.
  47. What are saliva's protective role?
    • clean food substances from mouth
    • neutralize and buffer organic acids formed by microorganisms
    • reduce demineralization rate
    • enhance remineralization by providing Ca, PO4, and F
Card Set
cariology: saliva, diet, fluoride
cariology: saliva, diet, fluoride