History 18&19

  1. Bourgeoisie
    the middle class, the top of the third estate; includes prosperous bankers, merchants, manufacturers, lawyers, doctors, journalists, and professionals
  2. Deficit Spending
    situation in which a government spends more money than it takes in
  3. Louis XVI
    as a leader was well meaning but weak and indecisive, chose Jacques Necker as a financial expert
  4. Bastille
    fortress in Paris used as a prison, French Revolution began when Parisians stormed it in 1789
  5. Estates General
    legislative body made up of the three estates in pre-revolutionary France
  6. Tennis Court Oath
    famous oath made on a tennis court by members of the Third Estate in France
  7. Marie Antoinette
    daughter of Maria Theresa, brother of Joseph II, lived a life of great pleasure and extravagance
  8. Robespierre
    Leader of the Jacobins and architect of the Reign of Terror
  9. Reign of Terror
    • The period (1793-1794) of the French Revolution during which thousands of people were executed.
    • A period of brutal suppression or intimidation by those in power.
  10. Guillotine
    A device consisting of a heavy blade held aloft between upright guides and dropped to behead the victim below.
  11. Napoleon
    Emperor of the French (1804-1814). A brilliant military strategist, he deposed the French Directory (1799) and proclaimed himself first consul and, later, emperor (1804)
  12. Napoleonic Code
    Body of French civil laws introduced in 1804, served as a model for many nations' civil codes
  13. Congress of Vienna
    assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleanic era to piece Europe back together, met from September 1814 to June 1815
  14. Anesthetic
    drug that prevents pain during surgery
  15. Enterprise
    a business organization in such areas as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories
  16. Capital
    money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise
  17. Eli Whitney
    American inventor and manufacturer whose invention of the cotton gin (1793) revolutionized the cotton industry. He also established the first factory to assemble muskets with interchangeable parts, marking the advent of modern mass production.
  18. Turnpike
    private road built by entrepreneurs who charged a toll to travelers to use it
  19. Urbanization
    movement of people from urban areas to cities
  20. Karl Marx
    German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wroteThe Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
  21. Socialism
    system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses
  22. Communism
    form of Socialism advocated by Karl Marx, according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole
  23. Proletariat
    the working class
  24. Social Democracy
    political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system
Card Set
History 18&19
French & Industrial Revolution