Nursing Theory and Research Terms

  1. Accessible Data
    Data that can be linked into for use within a research study.
  2. Accessible Population
    Individuals and/or groups accessible for a specific participation study; frequently a nonrandom division of the target population.
  3. Accuracy
    The correctness of the information used within the process.
  4. Action research
    Applied research that is attentive to the resolution of nursing personnel's identified challenges.
  5. Analysis
    A process of organizing and synthesizing data in such a way that research questions can be answered and hypotheses can be tested.
  6. Anonymity
    A situation in which the identity and data provided by the research participant are shielded from everyone, including the researcher.
  7. Applied Research
    Research that concentrates on resolving functional questions to supply reasonably direct solutions.
  8. Associative hypothesis
    A hypothesis stated in a way that indicates that the variable exist side by side and that a change in one variable is accomplished by a change in another variable.
  9. Assumption
    A fundamental tenet that is recognized as truthful on the foundation of logic or reason but is devoid of evidence or confirmation.
  10. Barrier
    An object, goal, or thing that obstructs or inhibits; a maximum value; a cut-off point.
  11. Baseline
    The state or conduct of a participant preceding the initiation of a treatment outcome.
  12. Basic Research
    Research designed to generate elemental knowledge and theoretic agreement about crucial human and foundational innate processes.
  13. Best Practice
    Those nursing actions that produce the most desirable patient outcomes through scientific data.
  14. Bias
    Any pressure that generates an alteration in the outcomes of an inquiry.
  15. Biased sample
    A sample group that is analytically diverse from the target population.
  16. Biophysiological
    Objective data that use a specialized piece of equipment to establish the physical and/or biological condition of the subjects.
  17. Blind review
    The appraisal of a document in which the identities of the author and the reviewer are concealed from the other party.
  18. Bundling
    Multiple identified interventions that, taken together, enhance the clinical outcomes.
  19. Case study
    A qualitative research method that concentrates on supplying a comprehensive description and scrutiny of an identified case situation.
  20. Categorical Variable
    A variable that diverges in type or kind but that has distinct values instead of values spaced along a continuum.
  21. Causal-comparative research
    A type of nonexperimental research design in which the principle independent variable under investigation is a categorical variable.
  22. Causal Hypothesis
    A hypothesis stated in a way that indicates that one variable causes or brings about a change in another variable(s).
  23. Chi-square test for contingency tables
    Statistical test employed to establish if an association recognized in a contingency table is statistically significant.
  24. Clinical Pathway
    A document that has been prepared and validated to provide the acceptable management of a disease process; components of the pathway uphold standards of practice.
  25. Clinical relevance
    Defree to which a research inquiry addresses a problem of significance to the practice of nursing.
  26. Clinical research
    Research calculated to produce knowledge to direct nursing practice.
  27. Clinical trial
    A research process that assesses the efficacy of an aspect of clinical management, usually in a large and heterogenous sample of participants.
  28. Closed-ended questions
    A question that is set up to force specific responses through the options provided within the question.
  29. Cluster sampling
    A method of sampling in which a sizeable group is divided into consecutive subsampling of smaller units; a style of sampling in which groups are randomly selected.
  30. Coding
    Classifying portions of qualitative data with either symbols, explanatory words or categorical narrative designations.
  31. Code of ethics
    Underlying ethical assumptions that are recognized by a discipline or organization to direct researchers; management of the research related to the safe handling of human subjects.
  32. Coercion
    Related to research endeavors, the specific and/or embedded use of threats and/or disproportionate rewards to get individuals to consent to take part in a proposed study.
  33. Cohort
    Several individuals presenting with a recognizable categorization or common attribute.
  34. Comparative design
    A design that does not entail any manipulation or control of the independent variable, such that the dependent variable is the only variable measured in two or more groups.
  35. Comparison group
    A company of participants whose results related to a dependent variable classification are used as a foundation for appraising the results of the grouping of designated significance; phrase employed in place of "control group" for studies not applying an exact experimental plan.
  36. Complex hypothesis
    A statement that specifies the relationship between and among more than two variables.
  37. Concept
    Theoretical foundation for inspectionof specific activities or characteristics.
  38. Conceptual definition
    Characterization of the identified word, variable, or activity from the dictionary-specific explanation of the term.
  39. Conceptual Model
    Systematic concepts or beliefs that are compiled in a logical representation based on their significance to a familiar premise; a conceptual framework.
  40. Concurrently
    Occurring at the same time (data or processes).
  41. Concurrent validity
    Validity verification that is based on the correlation between the calculated scores and criterion scores acquired at the same time.
  42. Confidence interval
    A range of numbers assessed from the sample that has a specific likelihood or probability of containing the population limitation.
  43. Confidence limits
    The final limits of a confidence interval.
  44. Confidentiality
    Protection of the study participants that results in the individuals' identities not being linked to the information they provided, meaning that the information can be provided only in the aggregate; not revealing the data collected from study participants to any person except the researcher and designated staff.
  45. Confounding variable
    A type of extraneous variable that is not controlled for. A confounding variable regularly fluctuates with the independent variable and affects the dependent variable.
  46. Constant
    A single quantity or status of a variable.
  47. Construct validity
    The degree to which a higher order concept is characterized in a specific inquiry.
  48. Consumer
    A person who reads, evaluates, and appraises research conclusions while endeavoring to use and employ the results in practice.
  49. Content analysis
    The practice of categorizing and combining qualitative results to establish the materializing premises and perceptions.
  50. Content-related validity
    The extent to which the details in a tool effectively characterize the totality of the content that needs to be included.
  51. Contingency table
    A table that places data in cells produced by the juncture of two or more categorical variables.
  52. Continuous variables
    a term that can take on a wide reange of values, such as 0-100 or larger.
  53. Control
    The procedure for managing the extraneous influences that could affect the dependent variable.
  54. Control group
    Participants in an experiment who provide the baseline for the study, in contrast to the treatment group. Members of the control group do not receive the experimental treatment.
  55. Convenience sampling
    The process of selecting elements to be in the sample who are accessible and/or who volunteer, also called accidental sampling.
  56. Convergent validity
    A type of construct validity.
  57. Correlational coefficient
    The outcome of the calculationof the relationship between two or more observed scores.
  58. Correlational design
    Any of a variety of nonexperimental research designs in which the primary independent variable of interest is a quantitative variable.
  59. Corroboration
    The process of evaluating documents against other documents to establish the consistency within the conclusions provided.
  60. Covert
    Covered up, hidden. Covert data are collected without the subject having knowledge of the collection of information.
  61. Criterion-related validity
    Based on the comparison of the tests being used with some known criterion.
  62. Criterion
    The yardstick or benchmark used for predicting the accuracy of test scores.
  63. Critique
    An inpartial, analytical and reasonable appraisal of a research report.
  64. Cross-sectional study
    A study based on data collected at a solitary moment in time with the intent of concluding tendencies over time.
  65. Cross-validation
    A method for triangulating qualitative data by confirming the results through some other process.
  66. Database
    An organized body of related information arranged for speed and access and retrieval.
  67. Data set
    The collection of information resulting from a research project.
  68. Data triangulation
    The employment of multiple data sources and data management procedures to validate qualitative data.
  69. Debriefing
    An interview conducted with the participants following the initial data analysis, during which aspects of the study are exposed, rationales for the employment of deception are explained, and questions that the participants may have about the results are resolved.
  70. Deductive reasoning
    The practice of drawing explicit conclusions from broad tenets.
  71. Demographic variable
    A term that refers to characteristics of the subjects in the study.
  72. Dependent variable
    The outcome variable that is alleged to be influenced by one or more independent variables; the presumed outcome of the study.
  73. Descriptive design
    A research study whose foremost intention is providing the truthful depiction of the distinctiveness of persons, situations, or groups and/or an accurate explanation or representation of the condition of a state of affairs or phenomenon.
  74. Dichotomous variable
    A characteristic that can be measured only in the sense that it is present or not present; often assigned a number for id purposes, rather than to represent a quantity.
  75. Directional hypothesis
    A statement that predicts the path or direction that the relationship between variables will take.
  76. Discrete variable
    A variable that can take on only a finite number of values, usually restricted to whole numbers.
  77. Effect Size
    The expected strength of the relationship between the research variables; used in the calculation of desired sample through power analysis.
  78. Element
    The fundamental component that is chosen from the population.
  79. Eligibility criteria
    The conditions employed by a researcher to indicate the detailed characteristics of the target population that are used to select participants for a study.
  80. Emic term
    The point of view provided by the individuals directly involved in a situation.
  81. Empiric
    Established by inspection, experiment, or practice (data and/or results).
  82. Equivalence reliability
    A measure of reliability that is calculated in the same manner as the consistency and stability coefficients, except this time, instead of a single variable over two trials, the test is between two forms of a single test.
  83. Error
    The difference between a factual score and an observed one.
  84. Ethics
    The main beliefs, ideology, and guidelines that facilitate the maintenance of an issue that we appreciate and respect.
  85. Ethnocentrism
    The practice of evaluating individuals from a diverse culture according to the priciples of the evaluator's identifiable culture.
  86. Ethnography
    A type of qualitative research that conscientiously illustrates the customs of a grouping of individuals.
  87. Ethnohistory
    An investigation into the cultural history of a group of people.
  88. Etic perspective
    An appreciation for the scientific consideratin of reality from an external viewpoint.
  89. Etic term
    An explanation of the social world under examination from an outsider's viewpoint.
  90. Evaluation
    Identification of the significance, advantage, or worth of an object being examined.
  91. Evidence based practice
    a process of utilizing confirmed evidence (research and quality improvement), decision making, and nursing expertise to guide the delivery of holistic patient care.
  92. Exclusion criteria
    Characteristics that, if present, would make persons ineligible for participation in a study.
  93. Expedited review
    A method by which a project is quickly appraised by selected members of the full institutional review board.
  94. Experiment
    A setting in which a researcher impartially scrutinizes a situation that occurs in a rigorously restricted position, with one or more variables being manipulated while others are held steady.
  95. Experimental control
    the practice of eradicating the degrees of difference resulting from extraneous variables.
  96. Experimental design
    Research in which the independent variable is manipulated, a control group is established, and randomized selection of the participants is employed to select who does and does not receive the treatment or intervention.
  97. Experimental group
    The participants who receive the experimental treatment or intervention.
  98. External validity
    The degree to which the analysis outcomes can be generalized to a specific group of persons, settings, times, outcomes and treatment variations.
  99. Extraneous variable
    A variable that confused the association between the independent and dependent variables; for this reason it needs to be restricted either within the research design or through statistical procedures.
  100. Face validity
    The degree to which a research tool correctly reflects what it is purposed to measure.
  101. Field notes
    Annotations recorded by an observer during qualitative endeavors.
  102. Focus group
    A small group of people assembled to participate in a moderator-facilitated discussion geared toward the designated topic being researched.
  103. Focus group interview
    A dialogue with a group of individuals assembled to respond and converge about a prearranged theme.
  104. Formative evaluation
    An appraisal conducted to improve the evaluation process.
  105. Framework
    The conceptual foundation of a study; sometimes classified as a theoretic framework, for projects with a connection to a definite conceptual model.
  106. Generalizability
    The extent to which findings from a study can be extended from a sample of a population to the population at large.
  107. Grounded theory
    A general method for developing new theory that is grounded n data that are systematically gathered and analyzed.
  108. Hawthorne effect
    A change in a dependent variable that occurs as a result of the participant's recognition that they are engaged in a study.
  109. Histogram
    A diagram that reveals the frequencies and profile resulting from a quantitative variable.
  110. Historic research
    Research that uses a practice of
Card Set
Nursing Theory and Research Terms
Commonly used terms in nursing research and theory courses.