1. Cell membrane structure
    • Phospholipids - permit diffusion
    • Cholestrol - provides stability
    • Protiens - signaling molecules
  2. Nucleus
    Control center with 46 chromosomes
  3. DNA
    • Genetic code for cell functions (A-T) (G-C)
    • Triplet (codon) code for a single amino acid 3 bases
  4. Cytoplasma
    Watery solution of minerals gases and organic molecules site for chemical reactions
  5. Cell organelles
    Intercellar structures with specific functions
  6. RNA & protien synthesis
    • Has single strand
    • Transcription - mRNA is formed as a complementary copy of the sequence of bases in a gene
    • tRNA molecules (in cytoplasm) hav anti-codons for the triplets on the mRNA
    • Ribosomes siye of protien synthesis & enzymes catalyze peptide bonds
  7. Mitosis
    DNA replication forms two sets of chromosomes during interphase (46 chromosomes for humans)
  8. Prophase
    • 1) The chromosomes coil up & become visible as short rods. Each chromosome is really two chromatids (original DNA plus its copy) still attached at a region called centromere
    • 2) the nuclear membrane disappears
    • 3) the centrioles move toward opposite poles of the cell & organize the spindle fibers which extend across the equator of the cell
  9. Metaphase
    • The pairs of chromatids line up along the equator of the cell. The centromere of each pair is attached to a spindal fiber.
    • 2) the centromeres now divide
  10. Anaphase
    • 1) Each chromatid is now a separate chromosome; there are two complete & separate sets
    • 2) the spindal fibers contract & pull the chromosomes; one set toward each pole of the cell
  11. Telophase
    • 1) The sets of chromosomes reach the poles of the cells & become indistinct as their DNA uncoils to form chromatin
    • 2) the nuclear membrane re-forms around each set of chromosomes
  12. Cytokinesis
    The cytoplasm divides; new membrane is formed
  13. Meiosis
    Gamete cell with the diploid number of chromosomes diviides twice to form 4 cells each with the haploid number of chromosomes (23 for humans)
  14. Antebrachial
  15. Antecubital
    front of elbow
  16. Axillary
  17. Frontal
  18. Gastric
  19. Gluteal
  20. Brachial
    upper arm
  21. Hepatic
  22. Buccal
  23. Cardiac
  24. Cervical
  25. Cranial
  26. iliac
  27. inguianal
  28. lumbar
    small of back
  29. mammary
  30. nasal
  31. deltoid
  32. cutaneous
  33. occiptal
    back of head
  34. femoral
  35. orbital
  36. parietal
    crown of head
  37. sternal
  38. Patellar
  39. temporal
    side of head
  40. pectoral
  41. umbilical
  42. pedal
  43. volar (palmar)
  44. perineal
    pelvic floor
  45. superior
    above or higher
  46. plantar
    sole of foot
  47. inferior
    below or lower
  48. popliteal
    back of knee
  49. anterior
    toward the front
  50. palmonary
  51. posterior
    toward the back
  52. renal
  53. ventral
    toward the front
  54. sacral
    base of spine
  55. dorsal
    toward the back
  56. scapular
    shoulder blade
  57. medial
    toward the midline
  58. lateral
    away from the midline
  59. external
  60. internal
  61. superficial
    toward the surface
  62. deep
  63. central
    the main part
  64. peripheral
    extending from the main part
  65. proximal
    closer to the origin
  66. distal
    farther from the origin
  67. parietal
    pertaining to the wall of a cavity
  68. visceral
    pertaining to the organs within a cavity
  69. anatomy
    the study of body structure
  70. physiology
    study of how the body functions
  71. Pathophysiology
    the study of disorders of functioning and a knowledge of normal physiology makes such disorders easier to understand
  72. inorganic chemicals
    simple molecules made of one or two molecules made of one or two elements other than carbon
  73. organic chemical
    very complex and always contain the elements carbon and hydrogen
  74. homeostasis
    is a state of good health maintained by the normal metabolism of the organ systems
  75. dorsal cavity
    consists of the cranial cavity and the vertebral (spinal) cavity
  76. ventral cavity
    the diaphram separates the thoractic cavity and the abdominal cavity; pelvic cavity inferior to abdominal cavity
  77. thoracic cavity
    include the heart and lungs
  78. abdominal cavity
    include the liver, intestines and the stomach
  79. pelvic cavity
    inferior to the abdominal cavity and contains bladder and reproductive organs
  80. plane
    an imaginary flat surface that separates two portions of the body or an organ
  81. frontal section
    separates the body front to back
  82. transverse section
    separates the body into upper and lower
  83. midsagittal
    separates the body into equal right and left halves
  84. longitudinal section
    a plane along the long axis of an organ
  85. cross section
    plane perpendicular to the long axis of the organ
  86. elements
    • simplest chemical make up all matter
    • carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus sulfur 99% of human body
    • elements combine to form molecules
  87. Atoms
    • smallest part of element
    • consist of positively & negatively charges
  88. ionic Bonds
    • cations (+)
    • anions (-)
    • salts acids and bases are formed by ionic bonding
  89. covalent bonds
    • sharing electrons between atoms
    • carbon always forms covalent bonds
    • strong bond not weakened by water
  90. disulfide bond
    • covalent bond between two sulfur atoms in a protien
    • helps maintain the 3dimensional shape of some protiens
  91. Hydrogen bond
    • covalently bonded y oxygen or nitrogen
    • 3-dimensional shapen & nucleic acids maintained by hydrogen bonds
  92. Chemical reactions
    • change by the formation or breaking of chemical bonds
    • synthesis - joining molecules
    • decomposition - bonds are broken in molecules
  93. Carbon dioxide
    • waste product of cell respiration
    • must be exhaled; causes acidosis
  94. cell respiration
    • energy producing processes of cells
    • this is why we breathe: to take in oxygen to breakdown food to produce energy and to exhale the CO2 produced
  95. Acids bases pH
    • the pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 ;
    • 7 neutral, below 7 is acidic, above 7 alkaline
    • acid: increases the H+ ion concentration
    • base: decreases the H+ ion concentration
    • cells pH 6.8
    • pH range of blood 7.35 - 7.45
  96. Carbohydrates
    • monosaccharides
    • - simple sugars
    • - glucose hexose sugar
    • - primary energy for cell resp
    • diaccharidess
    • -two hexose
    • oligosaccharides
    • -3 or 20 hexose
    • -antigens to cell membranes
    • polysaccharides
    • -starches in plants
    • -glycogen stored sugar in liver and muscles
    • -cellulose fiber portion of plant cells
  97. lipids
    • true fats
    • -made of fatty acids & glycerol
    • -triglycerides are storage form
    • phospholipids
    • - diglycerides in cell membranes
    • -myelin in phospholipid
    • steriods
    • - 4 rings of carbon and hydrogen
  98. protiens
    • made of amino acids
    • specific sequence and shape
    • protien systhesis needed for energy production
  99. Nucleic acids
    • made of nucleotides (pentose sugar phosphate nitrogenous base)
    • DNA double strand of nucleotides
    • RNA single strand of nucleotides
    • ATP nucleotide specialized to trap and release energy
  100. epithelial tissue
    • found on inner & outer surfaces
    • recieve nutrients from connective tissues beneath them
    • capable of secretion
  101. Simple Squamous ET
    • structure: one layer of flat cells, smooth
    • function: alveoli of lungs - thin to permit diffusion of gases
    • Capillaries - thin to permit exchanges of blood & materials; smooth to prevent clotting
  102. Transitional ET
    • Structure: Many layers of cells; surface cells change from round to flat
    • Function: lining urinary bladder - permits expansion without tearing lining
  103. Stratified Squamous ET
    • Structure: Many layers of cells, surface cells flat; lower layer of cells rounded & undergoes mitosis
    • Function: epidermis - surface cells are dead; barrier to pathogens
    • lining of esophoagus, vagina - suface cells are living; a barrier to pathogens
  104. Simple Cubodial ET
    • Structure: one layer of cube-shaped cells
    • Function:
    • thyroid - secretion of hormone
    • salivary glands - secret saliva
    • kidney - reabsorbtion of materials back into blood
  105. Simple Columnar ET
    • Structure: One layer of column shaped cells
    • Function:
    • stomach - secretes gastric juices
    • s. intestine - secrete enzymes and absorbs end products of digestion (microvilli present)
  106. Ciliated ET
    • Structure: one layer of columnar cells with cilia on their free surfaces
    • Function:
    • Lining trachea - sweeps mucus & dust to the pharynx
    • Lining fallopian tube - sweeps ovum toward uterus
  107. Blood CT
    • Cells are formed by hemopoietic tissue inside the red bone marrow & lypathatic tissue
    • Function:
    • RBC - transport oxygen
    • WBC - support immunity
    • Platelets - cause clotting
    • Plasma - transport materials
  108. Areolar (loose) CT
    • Structure: fibroblasts, matrix of tissue fluid, collagen, & elastin fibers (mucus membranes)
    • Found: below dermis & epithelium of tracts that open to the enviorment Ex: mouth, nose
    • Function:
    • Connects skin to muscle
    • WBCs destroys pathogens
  109. Adipose CT
    • Structure: Very little matrix, adiocytes that store fat
    • Function:
    • stores excess energy
    • produces chemicals that influence appetite, use of nutrients and inflammation
    • Found: Between skin & muscles
    • around eyes and kidneys
  110. Elastic CT
    • Structure: Primarlily matrix is elastic fibers w/ few fibroblasts
    • Function: Walls of large artries
    • helps maintain blood pressure around alveoli in lungs
    • promotes normal exhalation
  111. Fibrous CT
    • Structure: mostly collagen fibers w/ few fibroblasts
    • Function:
    • regular: tendons, ligaments
    • strong to withstand forces of movement of joints
    • irregular: dermis, fascia
    • the strong inner layer of the skin
  112. Bone CT
    • Structure:
    • Osteocytes in a matrix calcium salts & strong collagen
    • Function:
    • support body
    • protect internal organs
    • store excess calcium
    • contain & protect red bone marrow
  113. Cartilage CT
    • Structure: Chondrocytes in a flexible protien matrix
    • Function:
    • Wall of trachea - keeps airway open
    • joint surfaces of bones - smooth to prevent friction
    • Tip of nose & outer ear - support
    • Between vertebrae - absorb shock
  114. Skeletal MT
    • Structure: large cylindrical cells w/ striations, several nuclei
    • Function: Moves the body, produces heat
    • Effect of nerve impulses: voluntary contraction
  115. Smooth MT
    • Structure: small tapered cells w/ NO striations & one nucleus
    • Function:
    • wall of arteries - maintain BP,
    • stomach, intestines - propel food through digestive tract
    • iris of eye - regulates size of pupil
  116. Cardiac MT
    • Structure: branched cells, have one nucleous & contain faint striations
    • Function:
    • walls of the chambers - allows heart to pump blood throughout the body
  117. Nerve Tissue
    • Structure: neurons - cell body, neurotransmitters, synapse
    • Function: axon carry impulses away, dendrites carry impulses toward, neurotransmitter carries impulses across synapse
    • Found: in brain spinal cord & peripheral nerves
  118. Epithelial Membranes
    • Serous - line closed bosy cavities and their organs
    • Pleural - thoracic cavity
    • Pericardium - surfaces of the heart
    • Peritoneum - abdominal cavity
    • Mucous - line body tracts that have openings to the enviorment
  119. Connective Tissue Membranes
    • Superficial Fascia - between the skin & muscles
    • Periosteum - covers each bone
    • Perichondrium - covers cartlidge
    • Synovial - lines joint cavities
    • Deep Fascia - covers skeletal muscles
    • Meninges - cover brain & spinal cord
    • Fibrous pericardium - forms a sac around the heart
  120. Superficial fascia
    Between the skin & muscles adipose tissue stores fat
  121. Periosteum
    Covers each bone; contains blood vessels that enter the bone
  122. Perichondrium
    Covers cartilage; contains capillaries, the only blood supply for cartilidge
  123. Synovial
    Lines joints cavities; secretes synovial fluid to prevent friction when joints move
  124. Deep fascia
    Covers each skeletal muscle anchors tendon
  125. Meninges
    Cover the brain & spinal cord; contain cerebrospinal fluid
  126. Fibrous pericardium
    Forms a sac around the heart, lined by the serous parietal pericardium
  127. Stratum corneum (keratin)
    • Prevents loss or entry of water
    • Prevents entry of pathogens & most chemicals
  128. Stratum germinativum (basale)
    • Continuous mitosis produces new cells to replace worn off surface cells
    • Produces antimicrobial defensins
    • Cholesterol is changed to vitamin D on exposure to UV rays
  129. Langerhans cells
    Phagocytize foreign material & stimulate an immune response by lymphocytes
  130. Melanocytes
    Produce melanin on exposure to UV rays
  131. Melanin
    Protects living skin layers frm further exposure to UV rays
  132. Papillary layer
    Contains capillaries that nourish the stratum germinativum uneven junction of the dermis & epidermis
  133. Hair (follicles)
    • Eyelashes & nasal hair keep dust out of eyes & nasal cavities
    • Scalp hair provides insulation frm cold for the head
  134. Nails
    • Protects ends of fingers & toes frm mechanical injury
    • Mitosis occurs in root of nail
  135. Receptors free nerve
    Detect changes tht are felt as cutanous sense heat cold & pain
  136. Sebaceous glands
    Produce sebum which prevents drying of skin & hair & inhibits growth of bacteria
  137. Ceruminous glands
    Produces cerumen which prevents drying of the eardrum
  138. Eccrine sweat glands
    Apocrine Produce watery sweat tht is evaporated by excess body heat to cool the body
  139. Arterioles
    • Diate in response to warmth to incease heat loss
    • Constrict in response to cold to conserve body heat
    • Constrict in stressful situations to shunt blood to more vital organs
  140. Collagen
    Fibers make it strong
  141. Elastin
    Fibers Make it elastic
  142. Epidermis
    Outer stratified squamous
  143. Dermis
    Inner iregular type of fibrous connective tissue
  144. Subcutaneous tissue
    Aka superficial fascia
  145. Connective
    Areolar & adipose connects dermis to muscle
  146. The most abdundant source of energy
  147. three protiens essential for muscle contraction
    actin , myosin , troponin / tropomyosin
  148. specfic part of the brain that intiates muscle contraction
    frontal lobe
  149. the protien in red blood cells that transport O2 to muscles
  150. the reversal of electrical charges on the sarcolemma responding to nerve impulse
  151. the more attachment of a muscle to a bone
  152. the opposite of flexion
  153. cell membrane of the muscle fiber
  154. muscle often called calve
  155. when a muscle contracts it pulls a bone by doing this in length
  156. the central nervous system consist of these 2 major organs in our body
    brain & spinal cord
  157. the division of the nervous system that includes the cranial & spinal nerves
    peripheral nervous system
  158. function of the nervous system include
    detecting changes, feel sensations, initate responses to changes, organize and store info
  159. cerebral spinal fluid is formed by this
    chroid plexuses
  160. 2 division of the qutomatic nervous system
    sympathetic & parasympathetic
  161. 3 major parts of a neuron
    axon cell body & dendrite
  162. neurond are electrically insulated by the presence of
    myelin sheath
  163. AKA effernt neurons
    motor neurons
  164. interneuron is found entirely within this division of the nervous system
    Central Nervous System
  165. Myelin sheath are made of these types of cells found BOTH in the PNS & CNS
    schwann cells (PNS) & oligodendrocytes (CNS)
  166. The spinal cord has this many pairs of spinal nerves that emerge from
    31 pairs
  167. correct pathway of a reflex arc
    receptors, sensory neurons, CNS, motor neurons, effectors
  168. this part of the brain regulates are vitals & reflexes
  169. the receptors for muscle sense that detect stretching are called
  170. two important functions of CSF
    exchanges nutrients and waste product between the CNS & blood & absorbs shock
  171. endocrine glands are ductless and secrete these specialized substances
  172. pineal gland releases this hormone in response to
  173. organ that contains hormone producing cells called islets of Langerhans
  174. hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
    GH TSH ACTH Prolactin FSH LH
  175. Phospholipids of cell membranes synthesize these localized hormones
  176. the testes or ovaries inhibinfor the purpose to inhibit this OTHER hormone secrection
  177. function of oxytocin
    stimulate the contraction of the uterus during labor & release of breast milk
  178. @ messenger Theory describes the action of these types of hormones
    protien hormones
  179. stimulus for the secretion of insulin
  180. specific are of the brain that is responsible for the visceral areas
    occupital lobe
  181. Charactristics of sensations
    projection, intensity, adaption, contrast, after-image
  182. Free nerve endings within the cutaneous tissue are receptors for these sensations
    pain heat & cold
  183. receptors of hunger detect these types of changes
    GI changes
  184. both taste buds & nasal cavities contain these types of receptors
  185. this liquid in the eye nourishes the lens & cornea
    aquaous humor
  186. the innermost layer of the eye that contains rods & cones
  187. receptors found in the ear responsible for hearing
    hair cells
  188. the ear is responsible for these two senses
    hearing & equilibrium
  189. the areas of the brain that interprets equilibrium
    cerebrum cerebellum midbrain and cerebrum
  190. cranial nerve for hearing & equilibruim
  191. cause of hyersecretion disorders
    excess of a hormone
  192. steroid hormone enter the nucleus of cells diffusing easliy through this structure
    cell membrane
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