psych 5 infancy

  1. Brain Development
    From ages 3 to 6, the most rapid growth was in your frontal lobes, which enable rational planning
  2. The association areas
    —those linked with thinking, memory, and language—are the last cortical areas to develop
  3. maturation:
    biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. (p. 140)
  4. Motor Development
    25 percent of all babies walk by age 11 months, 50 percent within a week after their first birthday, and 90 percent by age 15 months
  5. Maturation and Infant Memory
    early memory as 3.5-4 years
  6. cognition:
    the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. (pp. 142, 291)
  7. Developmental psychologist Jean Piaget
    • A half–century spent with children convinced Piaget that a child’s mind is not a miniature model of an adult’s
    • children reason differently, in “wildly illogical ways about problems whose solutions are self-evident to adults”
    • child’s mind develops through a series of stages, in an upward march from the newborn’s simple reflexes to the adult’s abstract reasoning power
  8. schemas:
    a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. (p. 143)
  9. assimilation: piaget-explanation 1 to adjustment to schemas
    interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas. (p. 143)
  10. accommodate: explanation 2
    adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. (p. 143)
  11. sensorimotor stage:
    in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. (p. 144)
  12. object permanence:
    the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. (p. 144)
  13. preoperational stage:
    in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language butdoes not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. (p.
  14. conservation:
    the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. (p.144)
  15. egocentrism:
    in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view. (p. 145)
  16. theory of mind:
    people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict. (p. 145)
  17. concrete operational stage:
    in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. (p. 146)
  18. autism:
    a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind. (p. 146)
  19. formal operational stage:
    in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. (p. 148
  20. Which of the following is true of motor-skill development?
    The sequence, but not the timing, is universal.
  21. During the preoperational stage, a young child’s thinking is
  22. Children acquire the mental operations necessary to understand conservation during the
    concrete operational stage.
  23. Although Piaget’s stage theory continues to inform our understanding of children’s thinking, many researchers believe that
    Piaget’s “stages” begin earlier and development is more continuous than he realized
  24. stranger anxiety:
    the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age. (p. 149
  25. attachment:
    an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. (p. 149)
  26. Harry Harlow and Margaret Harlow bred monkeys
    The infants much preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing mother
  27. critical period:
    an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. (p. 150)
  28. imprinting:
    the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. (p. 150)
  29. about 60 percent of infants display secure attachment.
    In their mother’s presence they play comfortably, happily exploring their new environment. When she leaves, they are distressed; when she returns, they seek contact with her.
  30. infants avoid attachment or show insecure attachment
    They are less likely to explore their surroundings; they may even cling to their mother
  31. attachment cont..
    mothers who attended totheir babies when they felt like doing so but ignored them at other times—had infants who often became insecurely attached
  32. basic trust:
    according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers. (p. 152)
  33. consequences of insecure attachment
    Such findings help explain why young children terrorized through physical abuse or wartime atrocities (being beaten, witnessing torture, and living in constant fear) may suffer other lasting wounds—often nightmares, depression, and an adolescence troubled by substance abuse, binge eating, or aggression
  34. parenting styles
    • Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience: “Don’t interrupt.” “Keep your room clean.” “Don’t stay out late or you’ll be grounded.” “Why? Because I said so.”
    • Permissive parents submit to their children’s desires. They make few demands and use little punishment.
    • Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but they also explain the reasons for rules. And, especially with older children, they encourage open discussion and allow some exceptions to rules.
  35. temperament
    From the very first weeks of life, infants differ in their characteristic emotional reactions, with some infants being intense and anxious, while others are easygoing and relaxed. These differences are usually explained as differences in
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psych 5 infancy