1. Equivocation
    occurs when the speaker/writer uses a word with more than one meaning TWICE in an argument, but does not use the word consistently.

    *Look for repeated terms
  2. Semantical Ambiguity
    occurs when a term with more than one meaning is used ONCE!

    *listener is unable to decipher the meaning because there hasn't been sufficient context provided.

    *Could be interpreted in more than one way.
  3. Syntactical Ambiguity
    occurs when there is a problem with grammatical construction of a particular proposition.

    *The way the words are strung together creates a problem with understanding the meaning.
  4. Improper Accent
    occurs when the emphasis on a term leads to an unwarranted or inappropriate conclusion.

    *sometimes committed by taking portions of another statement out of original context.

    *look for in-text citations.
  5. Illicit Contrast
    occurs when the listener perceives or imagines or fears the speaker's accent or emphasis on a certain word.

    *listender commits the fallacy by drawing a conclusion that CONTRASTS what they thought they heard.
  6. Argument by Innuendo
    speaker will suggest a particular conclusion buut NOT assert it directly.
  7. Misuse of a Vague Expression
    assigning, without reason, a very precise definition or description to language that is in fact very imprecise or general.
  8. Distinction without a Difference
    an attempt to convince someone that two equivalent statements or ideas are NOT equivalent; that they are different when they are not.

    *denying or rejecting one version of the statement in order to accept or embrace ther other, presumably different version.
  9. Arguing in a Circle
    commited by saying the same thing in a conclusion as has been stated in the premise

    *keep saying the same thing over and over again.

    *look for repetition and circularity

    *do not confuse with "Distinction"
  10. Question-Begging Language
    committed when we use language that implies a position on some issue.

    *look for future-perfect forms of a verb "going to be" and "will be".

    *language implies what the outcome of the decision will be.
  11. Complex Question
    occurs when someone assumes the answer to a question that has not been asked, and then uses that assumed answer as the basis for a question that they do ask.
  12. Leading Question
    planting the answer to the question in the question itself.

    *proposition, comma, and then query.

    *"You will support my in my effort to get this judgship, won't you?"
  13. Question-Begging Definition
    committed when the speaker attempts to draw a conclusion on the basis of a faulty definition.

    • *3-Part Dialogue
    • 1. Definition
    • 2. Challenge to the Definition
    • 3. Rejection of the challenge because it doesn't fit the definition.
Card Set