1. Sodium Na
    hypertension, edema
  2. Potassium K
    muscular weakness, vomiting
  3. Chloride Cl
    normally harmless; can cause vomiting
  4. calcium Ca
    constipation, increased risk of renal stone formation, impaired absorption of iron and other minerals
  5. Phosphorus P
    low blood calcium
  6. Magnesium Mg
    • no toxicity demonstrated from food
    • supplemental Mg can cause diarrhea, nausea, cramping
    • excessive Mg from magnesium in Epsom salts causes diarrhea
  7. Sulfur S
    in animals, excessive intake of sulfur-contaning amino acids impairs growth
  8. Iron Fe
    increased risk of infections, apathy, fatigue, lethargy, joint disease, hair loss, organ damage, enlarged liver, amenorrhea, impotence
  9. Zinc Zn
    anemia, elevated LDL, lowered HDL, diarrhea, vomiting impaired calcium absorption, fever, renal failure, muscle pain, dizziness, reproductive failure.
  10. Iodine
    enlarged thyroid gland, decreased thyroid activity
  11. Selenium Se
    rare; nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hair and nail changes, nerve damage, fatigue.
  12. Copper Cu
    vomiting, diarrhea, liver damage
  13. Manganese Mn
    rare; nervous system disorders
  14. Flouride Fl
    flourosis (mottling of teeth), nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, chest pain, itching.
  15. Chromium Cr
    • dietary toxicity unkown
    • occupational exposure to chromium dust damages skin and kidneys.
  16. Molybdenum (Mo)
    occupational exposure to molybdenum dust causes gout-like symptoms
Card Set