1. Sodium (Na)
    fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, maitains muscle irritability, regulatescell membrane permeability and nerve impulsetransmission
  2. Potassium K
    fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, nerve impulse transmission, catalyst for many metabolic reactions, involved in skeletal and cardiac muscle activity
  3. Chloride Cl
    fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, component of hydrochloric acid in stomach
  4. Calcium Ca
    bone and teeth formation and maintenance, blood clotting, nerve transmission, muscle contraction and relaxation, cell membrane permeability, blood pressure.
  5. Phosphorus P
    bone and teeth formation and maintenance, acid-base balance, energy metabolism, cell membrane structure, regulation of hormone, and coenzyme activity.
  6. Magnesium Mg
    bone formation, nerve transmission, smooth muscle relaxation, protein synthesis, CHO metabolism, enzyme activity
  7. Sulfur S
    component of disulfide bridges in proteins; component of biotin, thiamin, and insulin
  8. Iron Fe
    oxygen transport via hemoglobin and myoglobin; constituent of enzyme systems.
  9. Zinc
    Tissue growth and wound healing, sexual maturation and reproduction; constituent of many enzymes in energy and nucleic acid metabolism; immune function; vitamin A transport, taste perception.
  10. Iodine
    component of thyroid hormones that regukate growth, development, and metabolic rate
  11. Selenium Se
    component of antioxidant enzymes, immune system functioning, thyroid gland activity
  12. Copper Cu
    • used in the production of hemoglobin;
    • component of several enzymes; used in energy metabolism
  13. Manganese Mn
    component of enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, and fat, and bone formation
  14. Flouride Fl
    formation and maintenence of tooth enamel, promotes resistance to dental decay, role in bone formation and integrity.
  15. Chromium Cr
    cofactor for insulin
  16. Molybdenum Mo
    component of many enzymes; works with riboflavin to incorporate iron into hemoglobin.
Card Set