
Statistics
Involves the techniques and procedures dealing with collection, organization, analyzing, interpretation, and presentatino of data

Three Components of Health Fields
 1. Education basic and applied knowledge
 2. Clinical Practice Deal with patient
 3. Research expand knowledge

Goal of Statistics in the Health Field
 Improve Health Profession
 Improve service
 Improve treatment and prevention of disease and disorders

Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics
 Descriptive Use data to describe sample
 Inferential Use sample data to make conclusions about the population

Causation vs. Assocation
 Causation When on variable directly affects another
 Association When two variables have a strong observed connection

Lurking Variable
A "hidden factor" that can influence other variables.

Tables
An orderly arrangement of values grouped in to rows and columns

Disadvantage of use of Tables
Since they are not very interesting, tables should be used sparingly

Advantage of using Tables
Displaying information related to several levels of a variable


Types of Tables
 One variable
 Two or more variable

Pie Chart
 Emphasizes each category's relation to the whole
 Chart must be incluse
 Useful for qualitative data

Bar (Column) Charts
 OneVariable
 Grouped (or two or more variable)

Stacked bar graph
Grouped bar chart in which the separate groups are colored coded and graphed together

Scatter diagram
A graphic technique used to display the relationship between to continuous variables.

Line graphs
Used to display trends

Ratio
Relationship between one quanitity to another. Numbers are expressed as a fraction or separated by a colon.

Proportion
Relationship between one quanitity and the whole

Percentage
Proportion x's 100

Frequency Table
View the distribution of data as it is sorted within each class

Class Interval
Which class has the lowest frequency


Interval midpoint
What is the midpoint of that class

Class width
2426, 24, 25, 26 3 the number of classes within a class

Stem and Leaf Plot
 Construct by writing the first digits in the first column stem.
 Write the second digits of all the numbers relating to each of the first digits leaf

Histogram
Plot of the frequency distribution table

Frequency Polygon
Same as historgram, except connect midpoint of class to make continuous line

Experiment Advantages
 Researcher designs and imposes treatments
 Best way to demonstrate causation
 Researcher has control over subjects


Survey advantages
 Factors being studied already exist
 Quickest and cheapest way to collect data
 More acceptable to conduct on humans

Survey disadvantages
Less able to account for lurking variables

Subject
People bein gstudied, people we get data from. Represent population.

Treatment
Conditions we impose

Control
Status quo, normal or no treatment.

Placebo treatment
Subject is unaware they are not being treated

Sham procedure
Mimick a procedure

Singleblind study
Subject doesn't know what group they are in

Doubleblind study
Neither the subject nor the researcher know treatment assignments

Clinical Trial
Experiment conducted on humans.

Why do a literature review?
 Interest in Topic
 Design project
 Background/rationale project introduction
 Compare your project results

