Involves the techniques and procedures dealing with collection, organization, analyzing, interpretation, and presentatino of data
Three Components of Health Fields
- 1. Education- basic and applied knowledge
- 2. Clinical Practice- Deal with patient
- 3. Research- expand knowledge
Goal of Statistics in the Health Field
- Improve Health Profession
- Improve service
- Improve treatment and prevention of disease and disorders
Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics
- Descriptive- Use data to describe sample
- Inferential- Use sample data to make conclusions about the population
Causation vs. Assocation
- Causation- When on variable directly affects another
- Association- When two variables have a strong observed connection
A "hidden factor" that can influence other variables.
An orderly arrangement of values grouped in to rows and columns
Disadvantage of use of Tables
Since they are not very interesting, tables should be used sparingly
Advantage of using Tables
Displaying information related to several levels of a variable
Types of Tables
- One variable
- Two or more variable
- Emphasizes each category's relation to the whole
- Chart must be incluse
- Useful for qualitative data
Bar (Column) Charts
- Grouped (or two or more variable)
Stacked bar graph
Grouped bar chart in which the separate groups are colored coded and graphed together
A graphic technique used to display the relationship between to continuous variables.
Used to display trends
Relationship between one quanitity to another. Numbers are expressed as a fraction or separated by a colon.
Relationship between one quanitity and the whole
Proportion x's 100
View the distribution of data as it is sorted within each class
Which class has the lowest frequency
What is the midpoint of that class
24-26, 24, 25, 26- 3 the number of classes within a class
Stem and Leaf Plot
- Construct by writing the first digits in the first column- stem.
- Write the second digits of all the numbers relating to each of the first digits- leaf
Plot of the frequency distribution table
Same as historgram, except connect midpoint of class to make continuous line
- Researcher designs and imposes treatments
- Best way to demonstrate causation
- Researcher has control over subjects
- Factors being studied already exist
- Quickest and cheapest way to collect data
- More acceptable to conduct on humans
Less able to account for lurking variables
People bein gstudied, people we get data from. Represent population.
Conditions we impose
Status quo, normal or no treatment.
Subject is unaware they are not being treated
Mimick a procedure
Subject doesn't know what group they are in
Neither the subject nor the researcher know treatment assignments
Experiment conducted on humans.
Why do a literature review?
- Interest in Topic
- Design project
- Background/rationale project introduction
- Compare your project results