Epidemiology Chapter 3

  1. Appropriate Uses of Data
    • 1. Cross-sectional analysis
    • 2. Case-control studies
    • 3. Incidence of disease
    • 4. Assess risk status
  2. Availability of Data
    Refers to the investigator's access to data
  3. Completeness of Data
    The completeness of the population coverage affects the representativeness of the data
  4. Content of the Data
    • Vital statistics
    • Surveillance
    • Reportable disease
    • Case registries
  5. Representativeness of Data
    Refers to the generalizability of the findings of an epidemiologic study to the population
  6. Sources of Data
    • 1. Health Insurance programs
    • 2. Registries
    • 3. Specialized morbidity surveys
    • 4. Surveillance programs
    • 5. US census
    • 6. Vital events
  7. Crude Birth rate
    Number of live births during a specified period of time per the resident population during the midpoint of the time period
  8. Fetal Death Rate
    Number of fetal deaths after 20 weeks or more gestation divided by the number of live births plus fetal deaths after 20 weeks or more gestation during a year
  9. General fertility rate
    Numbe of live biths reported in an area during a given time interval divided by the number of woman aged 14-44 years in that area.
  10. Infant mortality rate
    Number of infant deaths among infants aged 0 to 365 days during a year divided by the number of live births during the same year.
  11. Life expectancy
    Number of years that a person is expected to live, at any particular year
  12. Maternal Mortality Rate
    Number of maternal deaths ascribed to childbirth dvided by the number of live births times 100,00 live births during a year
  13. Online Sources
    • 1. Google
    • 2. CDC
    • 3. MEDLINE
    • 4. APHA
    • 5. Society for Epidemiologic Research
    • 6. WHO
  14. Google
    Rapid access to epidemiologic documents and links
  15. CDC
    Federal government's publications related to infectious and chronic diseases
    Site for performing bibliographic searches of health related literature
  17. APHA
    Epidemiologic Research
  18. Society for Epidemiologic Research
    American Journal of Epidemiology
  19. WHO
    Provides data on the occurrence of morbidity and mortality.
  20. HIPPA act
    Protects personal information contained in health records
  21. US Census
    Provides data that can be used to define the denominator in rates. Conducted every 10 years.
  22. Vital Registration System
    Collect data of vital events
  23. Vital Events
    • Births
    • Deaths
    • Marriages
    • Divorce
    • Fetal Deaths
  24. Death Certificates
    • Signed by- ME or Attending physician
    • Local Registrar- Checks certificate for completeness and accuracy sends copy to state registrar
    • State registrar- Checks certificate for completeness and accuracy sends copy to NCHS.
    • NCHS- Compiles and publishes national mortality rates
  25. Data contained in Death Certificates
    • Age
    • Sex
    • Race
    • Place and date of death
    • Cause of death
  26. Accuracy of Cause of Death
    Primary COD may not be clear
  27. Birth Certificates
    • Include live births and fetal deaths
    • Used to calcualte birth rates
    • Affected by mother's ability to recall events during pregnancy
  28. Public Health Surveillance Programs Examples
    • 1. Communicable and Infectious Disease
    • 2. Non-infectious disease
    • 3. Risk factors for chronic disease
  29. Public Health Surveillance Programs
    Refers to the systematic and continuous gathering of information about the occurrence of diseases and other health phenomenon.
  30. Syndromic Suveillance
    Using health-realted data that precede diagnosis and signal a sufficient probablity of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public health response.
  31. BRFSS
    used to monitor state level behavior risk
  32. Reportable and Notifiable Diseases
    • AIDS
    • STDs
    • Rubella
    • Tetanus
    • Measles
    • Plague
    • Foodborne Illness
  33. Case Registries
    A centrailized database for collection of information about a disease.
  34. Case Registry Examples
    • SEER
    • NPCR
  35. Late Fetal Death Rate
    Number of fetal deaths after 28 weeks gestation divided by the number of live births plus fetal deaths after 28 weeks gestation during a year
  36. Perinatal Mortality Rate
    Number of late fetal deaths after 28 weeks gestation plus infant deaths within 7 days of birth divided by the number o flive births plus the number of late fetal deaths in a given year.
  37. Fetal Mortality
    Death after 20 weeks gestation
Card Set
Epidemiology Chapter 3
Epidemiology Exam 1: Chapter 3