1. Vitamin A
    • slow recovery of vision after flashes of bright light at night is the first ocular symptom; can progress to xerophthalmaia and blindness
    • bone growth ceases; bone shape changes;enamel-forming cells in teeth malfunction; teeth crack and tend to decay
    • skin becomes dry, scaly, rough, and cracked; keratinization or hyperkeratosis develops; mucous membrane cells flatten and harden: eyes become dry (xerosis); irreversible drying and hardening of the cornea can result in blindness.
    • decreased saliva secretion-difficulty chewing, swallowing-anorexia
    • decreased mucous secretion of the stomach and intestines-impaired digestion and absorption-diarrhea, increased excretion of nutrients
    • impaired immune system functioning-increased susceptibility to respiratory, urinary tract, and vaginal infections increases
  2. Vitamin D
    • -Rickets (in infant and children):
    • retarded bone growth,
    • bone malformations (bow legged), enlargement of ends of long bones (knock-knees),
    • deformities of the ribs ( bowed, with beads and knobs)
    • delayed closing of the fontanel- rapid enlargement of the head
    • decreased serum calcium and/or phosphorus
    • malformed teeth; decayed teeth
    • protrusion of the abdomen related to relaxation of the abdominal muscles
    • increased secretion of the parathyroid hormone
    • -osteomalacia (in adults)
    • softening of the bones-deformities, pain and easy fracture
    • decreased serum calcium and/or phosphurus, increased alkalina phosphatase
    • involuntary muscle twitching and spasms
  3. Vitamin E
    • Increased RBC hemolysis
    • in infants, anemia, edema, and skin lesions
  4. Vitamin K
  5. Thiamin (Vit. B1)
    • Beriberi:
    • mental confusion, decrease in short term mempry
    • fatigue, apathy
    • peripheral paralysis
    • muscle weakness and wasting
    • painful calf muscles
    • anorexia, wight loss
    • edema
    • enlarged heart
    • sudden death from heart failure
  6. Riboflavin (Vit B2)
    • dermatitis
    • cheilosis
    • glossitis
    • photophobia
    • reddening of the cornea
  7. Niacin (Vit B3)
    • Pellagra: 4D's
    • dermatitis (bilateral and symmetrical) and glossitis
    • diarrhea
    • dementia, irrability, mental confusion- psychosis
    • death-if untreated
  8. Vitamin B6
    dermatitis, cheilosis, glossitis, abnormal brain wave pattern, convulsions, and anemia
  9. Folate
    glossitis, diarrhea, macrocytic anemia, deppression, mental confusion, fainting, fatigue
  10. Vitamin B12
    • -Gi changes: glossitis, anorexia, indisgestion, recurring diarrhea or constipation, and weight loss
    • -macrocytic anemia: pallor, dyspnea, weakness, fatigue, and palpitations.
    • -neurologic changes: paresthesia of the hands of feet, decreased sense of position, poor muscle coordination, poor memory, irritability, deppression, paranoia, delirium, and hallucinations
  11. Pantothenic acid
    rare; general failure of all body systems
  12. Biotin
    rare; anorexia, fatigue, deppression, dry skin, heart abnormalities
  13. Vitamin C
    • -bleeding gums, pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin
    • -scurvy, characterized by
    • hemorrhaging
    • muscle degeneration
    • skin changes
    • delayed wound healing:reopening of old wounds
    • softening of the bones-malformations, pain, easy fractures
    • soft, loose teeth
    • anemia
    • increased susceptibility to infection
    • hysteria and deppression
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