1. Vitamin A
    • -formation of visual purple, which enables the eye to adapt to dim light
    • -normal growth and deve. of bones and teeth
    • -form. and maint. of mucosal epithelium to maintain healthy funct. of skin and membranes, hair, gums, and various glands
    • -important role in immune function
  2. Vitamin D
    • -maintains serum calcium concentrations by:
    • stimulating GI absorption
    • stimulating the release of calcium from the bones
    • stimulating calcium absorption from the kidneys
  3. Vitamin E
    • -acts as an antioxidant to protect vit. A and PUFA from being destroyed
    • -protects cell membranes
  4. Vitamin K
    -Synthesis of blood clotting proteins and a bone protein that regulates blood calcium
  5. Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
    • -coenzyme in energy metabolism
    • -Promotes normal appetite and nervous system functioning
  6. Riboflavin (Vit B2)
    • -coenzyme in energy metabolism
    • -aids in the conversion of tryptophan into niacin
  7. Niacin(Vit B3)
    • -coenzyme in energy metabolism
    • -promotes normal nervous system functioning
  8. Vitamin B6
    • -coenzyme in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism
    • -helps convert tryptophan to niacin
    • -helps produceinsulin, hemoglobin, myelin sheaths, and antibodies
  9. Folate
    coenzyme in DNA synthesis, therefore vital for new cell synthesis and the transmission of inherited characteristics
  10. Vitamin B12
    • coenzyme in the synthesis of new cells
    • activates folate
    • maintains nerve cells
    • helps metabolize some fatty acids and amino acids
  11. Pantothenic Acid
    part of coenzyme A used in energy metabolism
  12. Biotin
    coenzyme in energy metabolism, fatty acids synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen formation
  13. Vitamin C
    • collagen synthesis
    • antioxidant
    • promotes iron absorption
    • involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids
    • thyroxin synthesis
    • immune system functioning
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