1. Nonverbal channels account for at least
    2/3 of all meaning conveyed through an act of communication.
  2. Nonverbal Communication channels often
    carry morerelational (rather than content) messages.
  3. Kinesics:
    body movement

    Kinesics can be used to enhance persuasion because they help sustain attention, interest, and comprehension
  4. Vocalics and paralanguage
    rate, tone, volume…

    We make many judgments about credibility from vocalics/paralanguage
  5. Eye contact can signal
    lattitude, interest, and dominance-submission
  6. Facial expression can
    reinforce messages -- or contradict it if we want to modify messages
  7. Chronemics
    Time (Chronemics): use of time to communicate.
  8. Violation of norms of the use of time
    decrease persuasiveness.
  9. _________ are the two
    principles underlying touch.
    Power and liking/attraction
  10. _________ usually lead to a decrease in persuasion (but may depend on reward valence)
    Violation of touch-based norms
  11. The violation of proxemics can be used to
    enhance or detract from persuasive success.
  12. Types of proxemics
    Territoriality: claiming rights to an area

    Personal space: the zone of space that surrounds our bodies
  13. Personal space:
    -invisible, variable, volume of space surrounding an individual that defines his or her preferred distance from others (Burgoon)

    -Size and shape depends on cultural norms and individual preferences

    -Conflicting approach-avoidance needs for affiliation and privacy
  14. Proxemic zones of Americans
    • - Intimate distance (0 to 18 inches)
    • -Personal distance (18 inches to 4 feet)
    • -Social distance (4 to 10 feet)
    • -Public distance (10+ feet)
  15. Sensory involvement:
    cultures that prefer high contact between people want to touch, smell, and make eye contact the people with whomthey are communicating.
  16. Levels of sensory involvement
    • -High: South Americans, Southern and Eastern Europeans, Arabic cultures
    • -Low: Asian cultures
    • -Moderate: Northern Europeans, North Americans
  17. Burgoon’s nonverbal expectancy violations model suggests that
    under some circumstances, violating social norms and personal expectations is “a superior strategy to conformity”
  18. Relational arousal
    heightened state of awareness, orienting response, or mental alertness that stimulates review of relationship
  19. Expectancy
    what people predict will happen, rather than what they desire
  20. Violation valence
    perceived positive or negative value assigned to breach of expectations, regardless ofthe violator
  21. Communicator reward valence
    • sum of positive and negative attributes brought to the encounter, plus potential to
    • reward or punish in future
  22. EVT offers
    “soft determinism"
  23. The following things will increase the likelihood that
    a violation will be interpreted positively:
    • -Status, ability, attractiveness
    • -Message content that conveys liking, acceptance, appreciation, and trust
    • -The power to provide the receiver with rewards in the future
Card Set