Earth Science Weathering & Erosion

  1. Weathering
    Break down of rocks into sediment.
  2. Erosion
    The transsportation of sediments by wind, water, gravity, or glaciers.
  3. Physical Weathering
    Rocks are broken down but don't chane composition.
  4. Chemical Weathering
    The rocks composition is changed after being broken down.
  5. Frost Action
    When water seeps into cracks, freezes and expands it, then melts leaving a bigger hole than before.
  6. Root Action
    Plant grows in the crack of something and grows, making it expand.
  7. Abrasion
    Constant hitting and rubbing of other rocks
  8. Oxidation
    Rusting when meatl and oxygen unite.
  9. Carbonation
    When CO2 mixes with rain and erodes the rocks.
  10. Deposition
    Strema, wind, or a glacier slows down and the sediment deposited is dropped.
  11. Things that affect deposition
    • Size - Bigger = Faster settle
    • Shape - Rounder = faster settle
    • Density - More dense sediment = Faster Settle
  12. The faster the stream is moving...
    The larger sediment it can carry
  13. vertical Sorting
    When Sediments are sorted by settling as the stream or wind gets slower. Like pebbles sinking first, all the way until clay.When the ocean rises, the rocks will deposit and stack up in a different order, to make a vertical block of different sediments.
  14. Horizontal Sorting
    When the biggest, roundest, most dense things settle first.
    Remember forever!!
  16. Streams both erode and deposit sediments. They are thje biggest eroders on Earth. The ability of a stream to eroded things is determined by...
    Amount of water, volume, slope, and location.
  17. The inside curve is
    deposition because the stream is slowing down to make the curve and the sediments are deposited.
  18. The outside curve is
    erode the outside as it smases into the curve because it isn't slowing down very much.
  19. Sediment deposits at the end of a stream forming a ____
  20. An older stream becomes _______ and begins to ____. Therfore, an old stream has _______
    An older stream becomes flatter and begins to meander (wander). Therfore, an old stream has many twists and turns
  21. Oxbow lakes are hairpin turns in a stream that get clipped off due to erosion
  22. Porosity
    Percent of open space in the ground. Space between dirt particles. The higher the porosity, the more open space there is.
  23. Porosity depends on...
    • Shape- round = high porosity because don't pack together tightly.
    • Packing- Particles packed tightly prevent open space for things to get through.
    • Sorting- Same size materials = high porosity
  24. Permeability
    The ability of water to move through the ground.
  25. Bigger pore spaces allow ________.
    water to travel through quickly.
  26. Infiltration
    Water entering the ground
  27. What causes infiltration?
    • Slope- high slope = run off which means less water getting into the ground
    • Degree of Saturation- If water is already filling that space, then water can't infiltrate.
    • Depth of Water Table- If the water table is high, rain water will flood and npt infiltrate fast enough.
  28. Water Table
    Where the aerated soil is seperated from the saturated soil. When it comes above the ground, a body of water will form.
  29. Capillarity
    Water moving upward from attraction of water molecules.
  30. Homesites want
    • Low water table
    • Permeable and porous soil
  31. Athletic fields, farms, etc., want
    High porosity and permeability on top, low on bottom.
  32. Land fills want
    Low porostiy and permeablilty to prevent the gross things from seeping into the soil
  33. Relief
    Change in elevation. High = lots of change
  34. Mountains have
    High relief and elevations, distorted rocks.
  35. Plateau
    Low reief and high elevation, horizontal sorting
  36. Plains
    Low relief and elevationm horizontal sorting.
  37. Dry areas are very
  38. Moist and humid areas are very
  39. Warm and humid means
    Chemical weathering
  40. Cold and moist climates produce lots of
    phsical weathering.
  41. Soil takes a long time to develop. It is from broken up rocks. Top soil is very rich in nutrients. Soils can be transported or be formed in one area (reesidual). Soil horizons develop
    I understand my soil
  42. Glaciers
    Form from excess snowfall and lack of summer melting.
  43. Last ice age was
    12,000 years ago
  44. Glaciers are ____ thick
    1 mile
  45. Glaciers coincide with sea level
    Uh huh
  46. Glaciers show evidence of
    ancient atmosphere by trapping air bubbles and dust and pollen.
  47. Rivers form __ shaped valleys and glaciers form __ shaped valleys
    Rivers form V shaped valleys and glaciers form U shaped valleys
  48. Moraine
    Pile formed from the edge of a glacier. A terminal moraine is when it is the furthest point like Long Island.
  49. Outwash Plains
    Sediment deposited from melt water in front of glacier.
Card Set
Earth Science Weathering & Erosion
Review from Weathering and Erosion in Earth Science.