quiz #1 – Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism

  1. what is parkinsonism
    condition that causes any of the abnormal movements seen in Parkinson's disease caused by the loss of dopamine containing cells
  2. what are four characteristics of parkinsonism
    • tremors
    • slow movement
    • impaired speech – sounds like a whisper
    • stiffness
  3. Parkinson's disease was originally called
    shaking palsy
  4. who was the first person described Parkinson's disease
    English physician James Parkinson
  5. true or false – Parkinson's disease is an acute neurological condition
    false – is a chronic degenerative neurological condition
  6. what key neurotransmitter is deficient in Parkinson's disease
  7. where is dopamine produced
    substantia nigra
  8. true or false – (Parkinson's) approximately 80% of dopamine producing cells have died prior to symptoms onset
  9. when is onset for Parkinson's disease
    50 – 65 years of age
  10. is Parkinson's disease more common in men or women
    men = women

    Some reports say higher incidence in men
  11. how many people out of 100,000 will suffer from Parkinson's disease
  12. what is the cause of Parkinson's disease
    • definite cause unknown
    • likely genetic or environmental
    • industrial toxins
    • drugs
    • combination of genetic and environmental is commonly proposed cause
  13. what are the cardinal signs of Parkinson's disease

    Four signs
    • muscular rigidity
    • resting tremor
    • bradykinesia
    • balance deficit
  14. what are signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease
    • shuffling gait pattern
    • drooping posture
    • masklike facial expression
    • freezing during movement – doorways, elevators
    • constipation
    • impaired speech
    • swallowing difficulty – big risk of choking and also a very early sign (drooling)
  15. true or false – patients normally have a resting tremor, but if they go to grab something the tremor will go away
  16. what are some psychiatric and behavioral symptoms of Parkinson's disease
    • depression
    • anxiety
    • decreased motivation
    • dementia, especially in later stages
    • fatigue
    • hallucinations
  17. what is a specific lab test for Parkinson's disease
    there is no specific test
  18. how is Parkinson's disease diagnosed
    diagnosis is a result of thorough medical history and clinical presentation
  19. how many cardinal signs must a patient demonstrate to be diagnosed with Parkinson's disease
    two Cardinal signs and symptoms
  20. does parkinson's disease have a high rate of misdiagnosis
  21. what are some differential diagnosis for Parkinson's disease
    • parkinsonism– often medicine induced
    • Huntington disease
    • Lewy body dementia
    • depression
    • essential tremor
    • TLA
    • Alzheimer's disease
  22. what is the average lifespan after diagnosis
    13 years
  23. true or false – the disease will get progressively better
  24. what is usually the cause of death for a patient with Parkinson's disease
    • heart disease or infection,
    • pneumonia
    • choking– choking, lack of strength
  25. what are some complications of Parkinson's disease
    • pressure ulcer
    • joint contractures
    • B&B trouble
    • deep vein thrombosis
    • fall risk
    • dementia
    • pneumonia
  26. describe the Parkinson's shuffle
    • flexed posture – head and trunk
    • shuffling feet
    • absent or decrease arm swing
  27. true or false – levodopa is converted to enzymes in the brain to produce dopamine
  28. as Parkinson's disease progresses medication must also
    progressively increase
  29. what is deep brain stimulation
    • neurostimulator implanted to block abnormals nerve signal
    • goal is to reduce on/off fluctuations and dyskinesia by targeting globus pallidusspace or subthalamic nuclei
    • not recommended for patients with dementia
  30. who qualifies for deep brain stimulation
    • Patients who respond to levodopa meds
    • have idiopathic PD
    • motor symptoms controlled by meds

    No patients with dementia
  31. medication decreases by______% after deep brain stimulation units have been inserted
  32. dyskinesia is reduced by_____% in patients who have had a deep brain stimulator placed
  33. motor scores increase by_____% in patients who have had the deep brain stimulator surgery
  34. what is a physical therapy treatment for Parkinson's disease
    • gait training
    • balance
    • coordination
    • endurance
    • strength
    • range of motion/strengthening
    • education
    • assistive devices
  35. what are some ways that you can help the patient with Parkinson's disease walk better
    • put tape on the floor
    • clap hands
    • music
  36. true or false – a physical therapist should be very exaggerated and loud when treating a patient with Parkinson's disease
  37. what are some good outcome measures used for Parkinson's disease
    • Berg
    • Tinetti
    • get up and go
    • dynamic gait index

    Always do outcome measures to look at objective functional improvements
Card Set
quiz #1 – Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism
Parkinson's disease