Anatomy 2

  1. How does blood contribute to homeostasis?
    by transporting oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and hormones to and from the body's cells. It also helps regulate body pH and temp, and provides protection against disease thru phagocytosis and the production of antibodies.
  2. Define cardiovascular system
    it consists of 3 interrelated components: blood, the heart, and blood vessels.
  3. What is the branch of science concerned with the study of blood, blood forming tissues, and the disorders associated with them?
  4. What are the 2 fluids that move around to obtain oxygen and nutrients or eliminate carbon dioxide and other wastes for the cells of a multicellular organism?
    blood and interstitial fluid
  5. define blood
    a connective tissue composed of a liquid extracellular matrix called blood plasma that dissolves and suspends various cells and cell fragments
  6. define interstitial fluid
    the fluid that bathes body cells and is constantly renewed by the blood
  7. What does blood transport and where?
    Blood transports oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the GI tract, whcih diffuse from the blood into the interstitial fluid and then into body cells.
  8. How is Carbon dioxide and other wastes transported...what is the route?
    From body cells to interstitial fluid to blood. Blood then transports the wastes to various organs for elimination from the body
  9. What are the organs used to transport wastes for elimination from the body?
    the lungs, kidney, and skin
  10. What are the 3 general functions of blood?


  11. How does blood function as transportation?
    Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body and carbon dioxide from the body cells to the lungs for exhalation. It carries nutrients from the GI tract to body cells and hormones from endocrine glands to other body cells. Blood also transports heat and waste products to various organs for elimination from the body.
  12. How is blood function as a regulator?
    Circulating blood helps maintain homeostasis of all body fluids. Blood helps regulate pH thru the use of buffers. It also helps adjust body temp thru the heat absorbing and coolant properties of the water in blood plasma and its variable rate of flow thru the skin where excess heat can be lost from the blood to the environment. In addition, blood osmotic pressure influences the water content of cells, mainly thru interactions of dissolved ions and proteins.
  13. How does blood function as protection?
    Blood can clot, which protects against its excessive loss from the cardiovascular system after an injury. In addition, its white blood cells protect against disease by carrying on phagocytosis. Several types of blood proteins, including antibodies, interferons, and complement, help protect against diesease in a variety of ways.
  14. Blood is ___ and more ___ than water and feels slightly ____.

    viscous (thicker)

  15. What is the temp of blood?
    38C (100.4F), about 1C higher than oral or rectal body temp
  16. what is the pH of blood?
    slightly alkaline ranging from 7.35-7.45
  17. What does the color of the blood depend on?
    its oxygen content

    If the oxygen content is high, it is bright red

    If the oxygen content is low, it is dark red
  18. What % of blood constitutes extracellular fluid?
    20%, amounting to 8% of the total body mass
  19. What is the blood volume for men and for women?
    5-6 liters in man

    4-5 in women
  20. Why is there a difference in blood volume between men and women?
    Because of body size and women's menstrual cycle
  21. What ensures that blood volume and osmotic pressure remain relatively constant?
    Several hormones
  22. name the hormones that regulate the blood bolume and osmotic pressure
    aldosterone, ADH, and atrial natriuretic peptide
  23. What do the hormones aldosterone, ADH, and atrial natriuretic peptide do?
    regulate how much water is excreted in the urine...therefore ensure that blood volume and osmotic pressure remain relatively constant
  24. What are the ways blood samples can be taken?

    finger or hell stick

    arterial stick
  25. What is a venipuncture?
    withdrawal of blood from a vein using a needle and collecting tube, which contains various additives.
  26. What is a common site for a venipuncture?
    the median cubital vein anterior to the elbow.
  27. What is an arterial stick?
    Blood is withdrawn from an artery; this test is used to determine the level of oxygen in oxygenated blood
  28. Blood has 2 components..they are:
    blood plasma

    formed elements
  29. What is blood plasma?
    a watery liquid extracellular matrix that contains dissolved substances
  30. What are formed elements?
    cells and cell fragments
  31. If a sample of blood is centrifuged in a small glass tube, what go to the bottom and what stay at the top?
    the cells sink to the bottom of the tube while the lighter weight plasma forms a layer on top
  32. How much of blood is formed elements and how much is plasma?
    45% formed elements and 55% plasma
  33. what constitute more than 99% of the formed elements?
  34. what constitute less than 1% of the formed elements of blood?
    WBCs and platelets
  35. What constitutes the buffy coat layer, and why?
    the WBCs and platelets of the formed elements because they are less dense than RBCs but more dense than blood plasma
  36. What color is blood plasma?
    straw colored
  37. What constitutes blood plasma?
    91.5% water and 8.5% solutes, most of which are proteins
  38. Some of the proteins in blood plasma are also found elsewhere in the body, but those confined to blood are called ___ ___.
    plasma proteins
  39. among their other functions, what play a role in maintainging proper blood osmotic pressure?
    plasma proteins
  40. What is blood osmotic pressure?
    an important factor in the exchange of fluids across capillary walls
  41. What synthesize most of the plasma proteins?
    hepatocytes (liver cells)
  42. What make up plasma proteins?
    albumins (54%), globulins (38%) and fibrinogen (7%)
  43. Certain blood cells develop into cells that produce ___ ___, an important type of globulin.
    gamma globulins
  44. what are the plasma proteins called that are produced during certain immune responses?
    antibodies or immunoglobulins
  45. What stimulate production of millions of different antibodies?
    foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria and viruses
  46. what are antigens?
    bacteria and viruses
  47. How do antibodies and antigens work together?
    an antibody binds specifically to the antigen that stimulated its production and thus disables the invading antigen
  48. What are the substances in blood plasma?

    • plasma proteins
    • albumins
    • globulins
    • fibrinogen

    • Other solutes
    • electrolytes
    • nutrients
    • gases
    • regulatory substances
    • waste products
  49. In respect to blood plasma, what is the description of water?
    Liquid portion of blood. Acts as solvent and suspending medium for components of blood; absorbs, transports, and releases heat
  50. In respect to blood plasma, what is the description of plasma proteins?
    Exert colloid osmotic pressure, which helps maintain water balance between blood and tissues and regulates blood volume
  51. In respect to blood plasma, what is the description of albumins?
    Smallest and most numerous blood plasma proteins; produced by liver. Function as transport proteins for several steroid hormones and for fatty acids
  52. Describe globulins
    Plasma protein; Produced by liver and by plasma cells, which develop from B lymphocytes. Antibodies (immunoglobulins) help attack viruses and bacteria. Alpha and beta globulins transport iron, lipids, and fat soluble vitamins
  53. Describe fibrinogen
    Plasma protein; produced by liver; plays essential role in blood clotting
  54. Describe electrolytes
    Inorganic salts. Positively charged ions (cations) include Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+; negatively charged ions (anions) include Cl-, HPO42-, SO42-, and HCO3-. Help maintain osmotic pressure and play essential roles in the function of cells.
  55. Describe Nutrients
    Products of digestion pass into blood for distribution to all body cells. Include amino acids (from proteins), glucose (from carbohydrates), fatty acids and glycerol (from triglycerides), vitamins, and minerals.
  56. Describe gases in regards to blood plasma
    Oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2). More O2 is associated with hemoglobin inside red blood cells; more CO2 is dissolved in plasma. N2 is present but has no known function in the body
  57. Describe regulatory substance in blood plasma
    Enzymes, produced by body cells, catalyze chemical reactions. Hormones, produced by endocrine glands, regulate metabolism, growth, and development. Vitamins are cofactors for enzymatic reactions
  58. Describe waste products in blood plasma
    Most are breakdown products of protein metabolism and are carried by blood to organs of excretion. Include urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, bilirubin, and ammonia.
  59. The formed elements of the blood include 3 principal components:
    RBCs, WBCs and platelets
  60. What are platelets made from?
    cell fragments
  61. What are several distinct types of WBCs?
    neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
  62. there are 2 classifications of WBC:
    Granular leukocytes

    Agranular leukocytes
  63. What are the granular leukocytes?
    • 1.
    • Neutrophils

    • 2.
    • Eosinophils

    • 3.
    • Basophils
  64. What are the agranular leukocytes?
    T & B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells

  65. Where did granular & agranular leukocytes get their name?
    Granular leukocytes contain conspicuius ganules that are visible under a light microscope after staining

    agranular leukocytes do not contain granules visible under a light microscope after staining
  66. What is the percentage of total volume occupied by RBCs called?
  67. If you had a hematocrit of 40 what does that indicate?
    that 40% of the volume of blood is composed of RBCs
  68. what is the normal range of hematocrit for adult females and males?
    38-46% for females

    40-54% for males
  69. Why would a male show higher hematocrits?
    Because testosterone stimulates synthesis of erythropoietin (EPO), the hormone that in turn stimulates production of RBCs, hence testosterone contributes to higher hematocrits in males
  70. Why are hematocrits lower in females?
    Because of the blood lost during their menstrual cycle
  71. What does a significant drop in hematocrit indicate?
  72. What is anemia?
    A lower than normal number of RBCs
  73. What is polycythemia?
    the percentage of RBCs is abnormally high, and the hematocrit may be 65% or higher
  74. Why is polycythemia bad?
    This raises the viscosity of blood, which increases the resistance to flow and makes the blood more difficult for the heart to pump. Increased viscosity also contributes to high blood pressure and increased risk of stroke.
  75. What causes polycythemia?
    abnormal increases in RBC production, tissue hypoxia, dehydration, and blood doping or the use of EPO by athletes.
Card Set
Anatomy 2
Blood ch 19