1. drug
    any substance that can modify a biological activity, used to diagnose, prevent or treat disease
  2. FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
    Regulates the development and approval of animal drugs and feed additives (except for biologics such as vaccines) through its center for vet medicine division.
  3. USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)
    Regulates the development and approval of biologics such as vaccines
  4. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
    Regulates the development and approval of animal topical pesticides
  5. DEA (Drug enforcement administration)
    Regulates the laws and rules regarding the purchase, storage and use of controlled substances.
  6. Prescription Drugs
    regulated by the FDA. Vet/client/patient relationship must exist before dispensing drugs.
  7. Veterinarian-client-patient relationship
    • Vet has assumed responsibility of animal.
    • Vet has sufficient knowledge of animal to issue a diagnosis.
    • Vet is available for a follow-up exam.
  8. Controlled Substances
    Dangerous drugs because of their potential for abuse. Regulated by the DEA
  9. Pharmacotherapeutics
    Reasons for using drugs.
  10. 3 methods of choosing drugs
    • diagnostic- assesment or exam test
    • empirical- practical experience, common sense
    • symptomatic- treat clinical signs
  11. regimen
    treatment plan
  12. pharmacokinetics
    what happens to drugs once they enter the body
  13. drug metabolism
    body chemically changes the drug, occurs in liver
  14. drug excretion
    drug elimination from the body, usually by the kidneys
  15. residues
    drugs remaining in the animals body
  16. withdrawl time
    time it takes for a drug to be eliminated from an animal after administration has stopped
  17. pharmacodynamics
    how drugs exert their effect. attachment or combination to receptors is similar to lock and key
  18. affinity
    ability or tendency to attach to receptor
  19. efficacy
    the degree to which drug produces desired respose to the patient
  20. agonist
    drug with affinity and efficacy, causes a specific action
  21. antagonist
    drug that blocks another drug from combining with a receptor
  22. generic name
    official identifying name of the drug, lower case
  23. trade or proprietary name
    name chosen by manufacturer that is registered by the us patent office and approved by FDA
  24. inotropy
    refers to the force of the contraction of the heart
  25. chronotropy
    refers to the rate of contraction of the heart
  26. stroke volume
    amount of blood being ejected from L ventricle with each heartbeat. Preload, afterload and contractility
  27. preload
    volume of blood entering the right side of the heart
  28. afterload
    force needed to push blood out of the ventricles
  29. contractility
    force of ventricular contraction
  30. cardiac output
    volume of blood expelled from the heart in one minute. stroke volume x heart rate
  31. acetylcholine
    acts to slow the heart rate by inhibiting impulse formation at the SA node, triggered by the parasympathetic nervous system. Blocked by anticholinergics
  32. cholinergic receptors
    receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system.
  33. Epinepherene and Norepinephrine
    acts to speed the heart rate by promoting impulse formation at the SA node, released when sympathetic nervous system is triggered
  34. adrenergic receptors
    receptors of the sympathetic nervous system that are classified based on their effects when stimulated.
  35. Alpha-1
    found in smooth muscle surrounding peripheral blood vessels. Vasoconstriction
  36. Alpha-2
    found in the synaptic space. reduction of blood pressure.
  37. Beta-1
    increased heart rate and increased force of contractions
  38. Beta-2
    found in smooth muscle surrounding blood vessels of the heart. vasodilation
  39. heart rhythm
    reoccuring heart contractions
  40. sinus rhythm
    normal heath rhythm, called this because it originates in the SA node.
  41. arrythmia
    abnormal heart rate, SA node not functioning properly
  42. positive inotropic drugs
    used to increase force of heart contractions, cardiac glycosides and catecholamines. Vetmedin
  43. cardiac glycosides, digitalis
    digoxin....heart pumps harder and heart rate slows, therapeutic dose is very close to toxic dose.
  44. antiarrhythmic drugs
    used to treat abnormal heart rhythm or an abnormal electrical pattern
  45. vasodilator drugs
    used to dilate arteries and or veins which improves cardiac output
  46. Renin
    enzyme that activates angiotensin, vasoconstriction substance in blood
  47. angiotensin II
    active form of angiotensin that causes further vasoconstriction, converted by ACE
  48. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
    converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II and releases aldosterone
  49. vasodilator drug
    enalapril, Enacard, Vetmedin
  50. Hemostatic Drug
    used to promote the clotting of blood, stop clotting, bleeding or enhance drugs
  51. antihypertensive
    used to decrease blood pressure to help with renal dysfunction, BLOOD PRESSURE LOWERING DRUGS
  52. hypertension
    increased resistance to blood flow that results from narrowed peripheral blood vessels.
  53. diuretics, ANTIHYPERTENSIVE
    act by promoting sodium and water loss to cause a decrease in fluid volume and blood pressure
  54. ACE inhibitors, ANTIHYPERTENSIVE
    act by blocking ACE
  55. calcium-channel blockers, ANTIHYPERTENSIVE
    act by blocking influx of calcium ions into heart muscle cells, inhibits cardiac muscle contraction which decreases resistance to blood flow
  56. vasodilators, ANTIHYPERTENSIVE
    relax smooth muscle of blood vessels
  57. beta blockers, ANTIHYPERTENSIVE
    act of heart receptors to slow heart rate
  58. diuretic drugs
    increase volume of urine excreted by kidneys, reduce blood pressure and lowers extracellular fluid volume in tissues
  59. loop diuretics
    most commonly used. inhibits Na reabsorption and exchanges it for K excretion in the loop of henle. furosemide, Lasix
  60. thiazide diuretics
    site of action is at the DCT, more K excreted while Na remains the same. can result in hypokalemia.
  61. Potassium-sparing diuretics
    works by actually causing Na excretion and potassium conservation, takes place in DCT
  62. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    block the action of enzymes carbonic anhydrase. causes increased Na, K and bicarbonate excretion
  63. osmotic diuretics
    increase the osmolality (concentration) of the filtrate in the renal tubules. excretes Na, K, Cl and H2O
  64. uroliths (urinary calculi)
    abnormal mineral accumulations in the urinary system
  65. urinary acidifiers
    act to produce acidic urine, disolves struvite uroliths. Less than 7pH
  66. urinary alkalizers
    act to produce akaline urine, pH greater than 7
  67. xanthine oxidase inhibitors
    act to decrease production of uric acid
  68. incontinence
    loss of voluntary control of micturition, neurological or nonneurological
  69. cholinergics (incontinence)
    used to treat animals with damage to the nerves that control the bladder
  70. anticholinergics (incontinence)
    act to promote urine retention in the bladder
  71. alpha adrenergic antagonists
    treats decreased urinary tone of the urethral sphincters
  72. hormones
    used to treat incontinence due to lack of muscle tone in spayed and neutered animals.
  73. alpha and beta-adrenergic agonist
    act to increase urethral tone
  74. skeletal muscle relaxants
    act to limit spasms of external urethral sphincter
  75. 60%, 80%
    adult and neonate water weight
  76. intracellular fluid ICF
    fluid within the cells. 2/3 body water weight
  77. extracellular fluid ECF
    fluid intravascular and interstitial...1/3 total body water. 75% is interstitial and 25% is intravascular.
  78. electrolytes
    substances that split ions when placed in water. Create electrical conductivity in the body.
  79. cations
    positivly charged electroytes
  80. anions
    negatively charged electrolytes
  81. osmotic pressure
    force or pressure that developes when 2 solutions of different concentrations are separated by a membrane
  82. crystalloids
    Na-based electrolyte solution and non-electrolyte solutions that can pass through cell membranes.
  83. hypertonic solutions
    higher Na concentration than extracellular fluid that cause water to move out of cells and into extracellular space.
  84. isotonic
    same Na concentration as extracellular fluid. Normosol, LRS
  85. hypotonic
    lower Na concentration causes water to move into intracellular space
  86. colloids
    substances that do not cross cell membranes, enhance oncotic force of blood, used for vascular expansion
  87. natural colloids
    whole blood, plasma
  88. synthetic colloids
    Dextrans, Oxyglobin
  89. daily fluid maintenance
    • 50 ml/day
    • kg
  90. replacement
    • restore fluid loss
    • % dehydration x body weight(kg) x 1000ml/kg
  91. adult fluid sets
    15 drops/ml
  92. pediatric fluid sets
    60 drops/ml
Card Set
Vet Tech Pharmacology notecards