Health Psychology Test 1

  1. Biomedical model
    considers disease as result from exposure to a specific pathogen
  2. Pathogen
    any disease causing organism
  3. Biopsychosocial model
    approach to health that includes biological, psychological, & social influences
  4. Health Psychology
    relates to health enhancement, disease prevention, & rehab. contributes to behavioral medicine & health
  5. Placebo Effect
    inactive substance or condition has appearance of active treatment& may cause improvement or chng cuz of ppl's belief in placebo's efficacy
  6. Nocebo Effect
    adverse effects of a placebo
  7. Double-Blind Design
    neither patients nor Dr.'s know who gets treatment or who placebo
  8. Single-Blind Design
    providers know who gets placebo, but not patients
  9. Correlation Coefficient
    any positive or neg relationship tween 2 variables. NOT CAUSAL
  10. Cross-Sectional Studies
    subjects at dif ages studied @ 1 pt in time. NOT CAUSAL
  11. Longitudinal Studies
    one group of subjects studied over time. NOT CAUSAL
  12. Ex Post Facto Designs
    values of independent variable are not manipulated but selected by experimenter after groups naturally divide
  13. Subject variable
    variable chosen by researcher to provide lvls of comparison for groups of subjects
  14. Epidemiology
    branch of med investigates various factors that contribute to either positive health or freq & distr of a disease or disorder
  15. Risk Factor
    any characteristic or condition that occurs in greater freq in ppl w/ disease that ppl w/o disease
  16. Prevalence
    proportion of pop that has a disease/disorder @ specific time
  17. Incidence
    measure of freq of new cases of disease/disorder during specific period of time
  18. Observational Methods
    look @ & analyze occurence of specific disease in a given pop. NOT CAUSAL
  19. Prospective Studies
    longitudinal studies that begin w/ disease-free group & follow the occurence of disease in that pop/sample
  20. Retrospective Studies
    longitudinal studies that look back @ the history of a pop/sample
  21. Case-Control Studies
    retrospective epidemiological study in which ppl affected by a given disease (cases) are compared to others not affected (control)
  22. Randomized, Controlled Trials
    randomized controlled trial, researchers randomly assign participants to study group or control group, making both groups equal on pertinent factors except the variable being studies. CAUSAL
  23. Clinical Trial
    tests effects of medical treatment, many are randomized, controlled trials
  24. Natural Experiments
    independent variable can be selected, but not manipulated. NOT CAUSAL
  25. Meta-Analysis
    stat tech for combining results of several studies when they have similar variables
  26. Absolute Risk
    person's chance of developing disease/disorder independent of any risk others may have for that disease/disorder
  27. Relative Risk
    person's risk for a disease/disorder compared to risk of others who don't share a similar condition or lifestyle
  28. Dose Response Relationship
    direct, consistent relationship tween ind. variable (such as behavior) and dependent variable (such as disease)
  29. Theory
    set of related assumptions from which testable hypoth can be drawn
  30. Model
    set of related principles or hypoth constructed to explain significant relationship among concepts or observations
  31. Reliability
    extent to which a test or other measuring instrument yields consistent results
  32. Validity
    accuracy; extent measuring instrument measures what it's supposed to
  33. Self-Efficacy
    belief that one is capable of performing behaviors that'll produce desired outcomes
  34. Optimistic Bias
    belief that others, but not oneself, will develop disease, have accident, or other neg effects
  35. Illness Behavior
    activities undertaken by ppl who feel ill & wish to discover their state of health, as well as suitable remedies
  36. Sick Role Behavior
    activities undertaken by ppl who've been diagnosed sick & are directed to get well
  37. Positive Reinforcement
    adding positive valued stimulus to a situatio, str behavior
  38. Negative Reinforcement
    removing negative valued stimulus
  39. Punishment
    presentation of aversive stimulus or removal of positive one (sometimes weakens response)
  40. Reciprocal Determinism (Bandura's Model)
    includes environ, behavior, & person as mutually interacting factors
  41. Adherence
    patients ability to follow recommended health practices
  42. Motivational Interviewing
    theraputic approach that originated w/in substance abuse treatment that attempts to chng client's motivation & prepares them to chng behavior
Card Set
Health Psychology Test 1