• author "me"
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    • fileName "EMT REVIEW CARDS"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0

    • Fluid that maintains the global like shape of the eye
    • Vitreous Humor
  1. Approximent length of time a "D" size oxygen tank will last when using a Resuscitator
    10-20 minutes
  2. Type of airway well tolerated by semi-conscious patients
    Nasopharyngeal airway
  3. Type of consent which allows EMT's to treat unconscious patients
    Implied consent
  4. Three ways infectious diseases are normally transmitted
    • 1. Direct contact
    • 2. Indirect contact
    • 3. Inhalation
  5. Standard color coding system for triage categories
    • Color Priority
    • Red-------------- first
    • Yellow -------- second
    • Green -------- third
    • Black -------- dead
  6. Responsibility of first arriving EMS unit at a mass casualty incident
    Assume command and assess the situation
  7. First priority when arriving at an auto accident scene
    Be sure the scene is safe and assess the situation
  8. Signs & symptoms
    Severe dyspnea, Reduced breath sounds on injured side, Distended neck veins,
    Trachea deviates to uninjured side
    Suspect what ?
    tension pneumothorax
  9. Signs & symptoms
    Pregnant patient in 3rd trimester, Sudden weight gain,
    Swelling of the face and hands, Severe persistent, headache,Elevated blood pressure, Persistent vomiting
    Syspect what ?
  10. Signs & symptoms
    Diabetic patient, Took insulin, Semi-conscious,
    Pale, sweating, Normal respirations and breath,
    Rapid pulse, Sudden onset
    Suspect what ?
    • Hypoglycemia
    • (Insulin shock)
  11. Signs & symptoms
    Diabetic patient, Diminished level of consciousness,
    Flushed dry skin, Fruity breath,Rapid, deep respirations
    Gradual onset
    Suspect what ?
    • Diabetic coma
    • diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
  12. Signs & symptoms
    Hot day,Unconscious, Flushed,Dry skin
    Skin very hot to the touch
    Suspect what ?
    Heat stroke
  13. Signs & symptoms
    Patient was running in a marathon on a hot day,
    Pale dizzy nauseated, Conscious, General weakness
    Sweating profusely
    Suspect what ?
    Heat exhaustion
  14. Signs & symptoms
    Patient was working in hot sun
    Sweating profusely
    Severe painful muscle spasms
    Suspect what ?
    Heat cramps
  15. Signs & symptoms
    4 year old patient, Pain swallowing,High fever 102-104,
    Drooling, Mouth breathing, Inspiratory stridor,
    Respiratory distress
    Suspect what ?
  16. Signs & symptoms
    Left side chest pain/pressure
    Radiating to left arm and jaw
    Shortness of breath
    General weakness
    Profuse sweating (diaphoresis)
    Suspect what ?
    • Myocardial infraction (MI)
    • Heart attack
  17. Signs & symptoms
    Noted weakness on one side
    Face and mouth drooped to one side
    Slurred speech
    Unequal pupils
    Suspect what ?
    • Stroke/CVA
    • (Cerebrovascular accident)
  18. Signs & symptoms
    Stung by bee
    Diffuse itching and hives
    Respiratory distress
    Tightness in throat
    Suspect what ?
    Anaphylactic shock
  19. Signs & symptoms
    Severe fatigue
    Shortness of breath
    Noisy respirations (rales and rhonchi)
    Swelling of ankles and feet
    Distended neck veins
    Suspect what ?
    Congestive heart failure (CHF)
  20. Signs & symptoms
    Anxious and breathing rapidly
    Light headed
    Tingling and clawing of hands
    Suspect what ?
  21. Signs & symptoms
    Extreme shortness of breath
    General weakness
    Diffuse wheezing bilaterally
    Noted on inspiration and expiration
    Productive cough
    Suspect what ?
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  22. Signs & symptoms
    Difficulty breathing
    Distended neck veins
    Expiratory wheezing
    Patient has no problem getting air in but extreme difficulty getting air out
    Suspect what ?
  23. Signs & symptoms
    Loss of appetite
    Tender abdomen
    Abdominal pain mostly localized in right lower quadrant (RLQ)
    Suspect what ?
  24. Best early indicator of shock in a pediatric patient
    Capillary refill time 2 sec. Or less
  25. Why should a tongue blade NEVER be placed in the mouth of a child suspected of havinf epiglottitis ?
    Laryngospasm may result, causing the airway to become obstructed
  26. What MUST BE REMEMBERED when suctioning the airway of a newborn with a bulb syringe ?
    Squeeze the syringe before inserting the tip into the newborn's mouth or nose
  27. What is the proper spacing for cord clamps or ties
    Cord clamps should be placed 2-3 inches apart. Place the clamps about halfway between the mother and baby, or the first clamp 6-7 inches from the baby
  28. List the 3 stages of labor in order
    • 1. Dilation
    • 2. Expulsion
    • 3. Placental
  29. Two instances during delivery when an EMT may need to insert fingers into the patients vagina
    • 1. Breech birth - to perform an airway for the baby
    • 2. Prolapsed cord - to take pressure off the cord
  30. Term for the abnormal lowering of general body temperature
  31. Two basic types of cold injuries
    • Freezing (frostbite)
    • Non - freezing (frostnip)
  32. List the three most common heat related emergencies
    • Heat cramps
    • Heat exhaustion
    • Heat stroke
  33. Percentage of total skin surface
    Rules of nines
    • Head 18%
    • Each arm 9%
    • Chest & abdomen 18%
    • Back & buttocks 18%
    • Each leg 14%
  34. Percentage of total skin surface
    Rules of nines
    • Head 14%
    • Each arm 9%
    • Chest & abdomen 18%
    • Back & buttocks 18%
    • Each leg 16%
  35. Percentage of total skin surface
    Rules of nines
    • Head 9%
    • Each arm 9%
    • Chest & abdomen 18%
    • Back & buttocks 18%
    • Each leg 18%
    • Perineum 1%
  36. Involves entire thickness of skin. Pain usually absent due to nerve destruction. Skin may be white and leathery, or black and charred.

    Degree of burn ?
    Third degree (full thickness)
  37. Involves epidermis and dermis. Produces blisters and severe pain.

    Degree of burn ?
    Second degree (partial-thickness)
  38. Involves outer layer of skin (epidermis). Characterized by redness, tenderness, mild to moderate pain

    Degree of burn ?
    First degree (mild partial-thickness)
  39. Four general categories of burns
    • Thermal
    • Chemical
    • Electrical
    • Radiation
  40. When providing emergency care for a head injury, EMT be sure to check ?
    Possible cerebrospinal fluid draining from the nose or ears
  41. Type of injury which MUST be suspected in all driving accident ?
    Neck injury
  42. Three questions and EMT should ask all patient with head injuries to help determine mental status ?
    • What is your name
    • What day is today
    • where are you
  43. Two additional injuries which MUST be suspected in all patient with head injuries ?
    • Neck injuries
    • Back injuries
  44. List 3 main signs of cardiac tamponade
    • Distended neck veins
    • Narrowing pulse pressure
    • Muffled heart sounds
  45. When a sucking chest wound is discovered, what should be done immediately ?
    Seal the opening with an airtight dressing
  46. A weak area in the lung suface ruptures, dur to no trauma
    Spontaneous pneumothorax
  47. Blood leaks into the pleural cavity
  48. Blood or other fluid in the pericardial sac exerts pressure on the heart, adversely affecting its pumping ability
    Pericardial tamponade
  49. An open pneumothorax which permits air to enter (and possibly leave) the chest cavity
    Sucking chest wound
  50. Air escapes into the pleural space through a sucking wound or lacerated lung
  51. A continuous leak of air into the pleural space which builds up pressure. Eventually forcing the collapsed lung against the heart and uninjured lung
    Tension pneumothorax
  52. 3 or more ribs fractures, each in two places, with the segment moving abnormally
    Flail chest
  53. 5 key objestives when properly immobilizing a patient (with a cervical collar) on a longboard
    • Head, neck, torso, pelvis and lower extremities are in the neutral in-line position
    • Torso cannot move up, down, anteriorly, lert, or right
    • Torso immobilized before head
    • Head cannot move
    • Legs cannot move or rotate
  54. Potential complication of fractures humerus
    Radial nerve injury (wrist drop)
  55. Important point to remember when immobilizing the suspected elbow fracture
    Immobilize in position found
  56. Characterized by the bone being broken into many pieces, possibly also crushed and/or splintered
  57. A patient with what type of fracture WOULD NOT be log rolled onto a backboard ?
    Pelvic fracture (use a blanket to lift the patient onto backboard)
  58. An abnormal outward roll of the leg is an indication of what type of fracture ?
    Hip fracture
  59. Traction splints are primarily used for what type of fracture ?
    Femur fracture
  60. Two major classifications of fractures
    • Open (compound)
    • Closed (simple)
  61. 6 major categories of commonly abused substances
    • Cannabis products - marijuana, hashish, etc.
    • Depressants narcotics - oxycodone, heroin, etc.
    • Hallucinogens - LSD, PCP, etc.
    • Inhalants - glues, aresol products, etc.
    • Depressants sedatives - alcohol, barbiturates
    • Stimulants - caffeine, cocaine, etc.
  62. What respiratory condition uses oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to regulate breathing
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  63. what respiratory condition is characterized by increased sensitivity of the lower airway to irritants and alergens, causing bronchospasm, which is diffuse, reversible narrowing of bronchioles, as well as inflammation to the lining of the bronchioles.
  64. Term for a ballooning out of a weak spot in the wall of an artery
  65. Four merhods by which poisons enter the body ?
    • Ingestion
    • Inhalation
    • Injection
    • Absorption
  66. Important point to remember when treating a patient who has been poisoned by contact with a chemical
    Wash or brush off any remaining chemicals
  67. Name the 3 prominent parts of the brain ?
    • Cerebrum - controls voluntary activity, thought, memory, and sensory reception
    • Cerebellum - balance and cordination
    • Medulla - involuntary functions, such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion
  68. What 2 gases are exchanged during respiration ?
    Oxygen and carbon dioxide
  69. Name the 10 systems of the body
    Skeletal, muscular, intergumentary, nervous, respiratory, circulatory, digestive, urinary, reproductive, and endocrine
  70. Name the 5 body cavities
    • Cranial
    • Spinal
    • Thoracic
    • Abdominal
    • Pelvic
  71. Content of the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of abdomen
    • Spleen
    • Left kidney
    • Stomach
    • Colon
    • Pancreas
  72. Content of the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of abdomen
    • Liver
    • Right kidney
    • Colon
    • Pancreas
    • Gall bladder
  73. Contents of left lower quadrant (LLQ) of abdomen
    • Colon
    • Small intestine
    • Major artery and vein to left leg
    • Ureter
    • Left ovary
  74. Contents of right lower quadrant (RLQ) of abdomen
    • Colon
    • Small intestine
    • Major artery and vein to right leg
    • Ureter
    • Appendix
    • Right ovary
  75. Name the 3 layer of the integumentary (skin) system
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subcutaneous
  76. Name the 2 main functions of the skin
    • Protection
    • Temperature regulation
  77. Name the four functions of the skeletal system
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Blood cell production
    • Attachment for muscles
  78. Name the five section of the spine
    • Cervical
    • Thoracic
    • Lumbar
    • Sacrum
    • Coccyx
  79. Name the 3 types of muscles
    • Skeletal
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  80. Name the 2 components of the cental nervous system
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
  81. What 2 main types of nerves enter and leave the spinal cord ?
    • Sensory
    • Motor
  82. Most common cause of airway obstruction
    The tongue
  83. % of oxygen in room air
  84. Approximate range of time a person can go without oxygen before brain damage occurs ?
    4-6 min.
  85. Method of opening the airway of a victim with suspected neck injury
    Modified jaw thrust maneuver
  86. Proper pulse to check on infants
    Brachial pulse
  87. Tube leading from the kidney to the bladder
  88. Tube that transports urine out of the bladder
  89. Gland responsible for regulating body metabolism
    Thyroid gland
  90. Approximate pressure of a full oxygen tank
    About 2000 psi
  91. Normal respiratory rate per min.
    Adult 8-24
  92. Normal respiratory rate per min.
    Adolescent 11-16 yrs
  93. Normal respiratory rate per min.
    School age 6-10 yrs
  94. Normal respiratory rate per min.
    Preschool 3-5 yrs, toddler 1-3 yrs, infant 6 months to 1 year.
  95. Normal respiratory rate per min.
    Infant 30 days - 5 months
  96. Normal respiratory rate per min.
    New born - 30 days
    30 - 60
  97. Major muscle involve in respiration
  98. Name the 2 sub-systems of the circulation within the circulatory system
    • SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION - comprised of left ventricle, blood vessels to an from the body, and the right atruim
    • PULMONARY CIRCULATION - comprised of right ventricle, blood vessels to and from the lungs, and the left atrium
  99. Normal pulse rate per min.
  100. Normal pulse rate per min.
  101. Normal pusle rate per min.
    child 5-12 yrs
  102. Normal pulse rate per min.
    Child 1-5 yrs
  103. Normal pulse rate per min.
  104. Normal pulse rate per min.
  105. Name the upper chambers of the heart
    Right and left atrium
  106. Name the lower chamber of the heart
    Right and left ventricals
  107. Blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart
  108. Blood vessels which carry blood to the heart
  109. Blood vessels which connect arteries and veins
  110. Blood is composed of four different parts, each having its own function
    Name the four parts
    • Red blood cells (erythrocytes) - carry oxygen
    • White bloood cells (leukocytes) - combat infection
    • Platelets - clot formation
    • Plasma - the fluid portion
  111. Main function of the large intestine
    Absorption of liquid
  112. Main function of the small intestine
    Absorption of digested food
  113. Organ that stores bile
    Gall blader
  114. What is meant by "cracking" the valve of an oxygen cylinder
    Quickly opening and closing the valve before attaching the regulator to blow dust out of the valve opening
  115. Percent of concentration of oxygen delivered by a nasal cannula
  116. Percentage of concentration delivered by non-rebreather face mask
    Close to 100%
  117. Approximate number of pints or units of blood in the average 150 pound adult body
    10 - 12 pints or units
  118. How much of the body weight is composed of blood ?
    7 - 8 %
  119. Name the 5 types of wounds
    • Abrasion
    • Laceration
    • Incision
    • Puncture
    • Avulsion
  120. Name the 5 forms of emergency bleeding control
    • Direct pressure
    • Tourniquets
    • Elevation
    • Splints
    • Topical hemostatic agents
  121. Name the 8 primary types of shock
    Anaphylactic, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, metabolic, neurogenic, psychogenic, respiratory, septic
  122. Result of sensitivity to insect stings or bites, drugs, or food
    Anaphylactic shock
  123. Brought on by fluid loss from diarrhea, urination, vomiting, or an acid-base balance disturbance
    Metabolic shock
  124. Occurs when toxins are released into the bloodstream due to severe infections
    Septic shock
  125. Caused by direct fluid loss of blood, loss of plasma (as in seepage of burns), or loss of fluid from intestinal tract
    Hypovolemic shock
  126. Caused by inadequate functioning of the heart
    Cardiogenic shock
  127. Nervous system dysfunction causes a widespread dilation of blood vessels
    Neurogenic shock
  128. Differentiate sign and symptom
    • Sign - something the rescuer sees, hears, feels
    • Symptom - something the patient tells about himself
  129. What does each letter of S.A.M.P.L.E stand for
    • S - signs and symptoms
    • A - allergies
    • M - medications
    • P - past pertinent history
    • L - last oral intake
    • E - events leading to the present illness
  130. What does the letters in O.P.Q.R.S.T stand for ?
    • O - onset
    • P - provocation/palliation/position
    • Q - quality
    • R - radiation
    • S - severity
    • T - time
  131. What are the 5 baseline vitals
    • Breathing
    • Pulse
    • Skin
    • Pupils
    • Blood pressure
  132. Normal blood pressure in an adult male ?
    • Systolic - 100 + age in years to age 40
    • Diastolic - 60-85 mmhg
  133. Normal blood pressue in an adult female ?
    • Systolic - 90 + age in years to age 40
    • Diastolic - 60-85 mmhg
  134. Normal blood pressure in a adolescent ?
    • Systolic - 90 mmhg (lower limit of normal)
    • Diastolic - 2/3 of the systolic pressure
  135. Normal blood pressure in a child 1-10 yrs ?
    • Systolic - 90 + (childs age times 2) (upper range of normal)
    • 80 + (childs age times 2) (middle range of normal)
    • 70 + (childs age times 2) (lower limit of normal)
    • Diastolic - 2/3 of systolic pressure
  136. Normal blood pressure in a infant 1-12 months
    • Systolic - 70 mmhg (lower limit of normal)
    • Diastolic - 2/3 of systolic pressure
  137. What are the Four solid organs in the abdominal cavity ?
    • Spleen
    • Liver
    • Pancreas
    • Kindeys
  138. What are the six hollow organs in the abdominal cavity
    • Stomach
    • GallBladder
    • Duodenum
    • Large Intestine
    • Small Intestine
    • Bladder
  139. What is Peritonitits ?
    Irriation and Inflammation of the peritoneum (lining of the abdomen)
  140. What is Pancreatitis ?
    Inflammation of the pancreas. (May cause sever pain in the middle of the upper quadrant)
  141. What is Cholecystitis ?
    Inflammation of the Gallbladder
  142. What is Hematemesis ?
    Vomiting of Blood
  143. What is Hematochezia ?
    Bright red blood in the stool
  144. What is Melena ?
    Dark tarry stools containing decomposing lood normally from the upper gastrointestinal system
  145. What is Esophageal Varices ?
    Bulging, engorgement, or weakening of the blood vessels in the lining of the lower esphagus
  146. What is Gastroenteritis ?
    Inflammation of the stomach and small intestines
  147. Signs and Symptoms
    - Gradual onset of lower lumbar, groin and abdominal pain
    - pulsating mass may be felt in abdomen
    - Mottled or spotty abdominal skin
    - Absent or decreased femoral or pedal pulses
    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)
  148. What is Endometriosis ?
    The condition in which endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus
  149. What is Endometritis ?
    Inflammation of the endometrium
  150. What is Pelvic infammatory disease (PID)
    Inflammation of the female reproductive tract
  151. What is Hematuria ?
    Blood in the urine
  152. What is Renal Calculi
    Kidney Stones
Card Set
EMT Review