Micro Ch 1

  1. Bacteria
    • Bacteriology
    • micro meter
    • 1x10^-6
  2. Protozoans
  3. Algae
  4. Parasites
  5. Yeasts & Molds
    • - Fungi
    • Mycology
  6. Viruses
    • Virology
    • nm (1x10^-9)
    • can be seen with electron microscope
  7. Techniques to isolate & culture microorganisms
    • 1.) isolation
    • 2.) Sterilization
    • 3.) Culture in artificial media
  8. fungi
    • mushrooms
    • penicillin & yeast
    • used for making ber & wine
  9. Algae
    • photosynthesis
    • produse over 50% of oxygen
  10. morphology
  11. cytology
    cell characteristics/content
  12. physiology
    function of growth for making disease
  13. ecology
    tolerable temperatures for microorganism growth
  14. taxonomy
    • classifications
    • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  15. bioremediation
    process of microorganisms to degrade waste
  16. Robert Hooke
    • discovered microscope/lens
    • did not see living thing
  17. Antonio Van Leeuwenhoek
    1st to see living thing with microscope
  18. spontaneous generation
    belief that life could orginate from non-living matter
  19. Francesco Redi
    • disproved spontaneous generation
    • - maggot was unable to grow on meat if meat was covered with gauze
  20. Schwann
    • disproved spontaneous theory
    • allowed air to enter flask after passing through heated tube
    • sterile wool
  21. Louis Pasteur
    • demonstrated that microorganisms were present in air
    • - applied heat to flask bending neck and trapping microorganisms in air
    • -25C optimum temp

    - showed disease of silkworms was caused by protozoans

    - developed vaccines for chicken cholera, anthrax, and rabies
  22. Fermentation
    production of alcohol by breakdown of carbohydrates
  23. Agostino Bass
    showed that silkworm disease was caused by fungus
  24. Charles Chamberland
    identified virus as disease-causing agents

    ex. (TMV) Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  25. Edward Jenner
    vaccination procedure to protect from smallpox
  26. Joseph Lister
    • phenol (carbolic acid) to disinfect wounds
    • first antiseptic in surgery
  27. Robert Koch
    1st to classify bacteria microorganism specificity
  28. Koch's Postulates
    1.) etiological - causative agent must be present in all affected organisms

    2.) agent - isolated from cultured in pure form

    3.) cultured agent - introduced to healthy agent && cause same disease

    4.) same causative agent - must be able to be removed from newly infected agent and cause disease
  29. Virulent strains not cultured in artificial media
    • syphilis - Treponema pallidum
    • leprosy - Mycobacterium
  30. Gelatin
    • melts @ 28 degrees
    • bacteria hydrolyze
  31. agar
    • not digested by most bacteria
    • melts @ 100 degreesC
    • used in 2% solid media
  32. Swan neck flask
    Pasteur used to disprove spontaneous generation
  33. culture
    growth of bacteria in solid or liquid artificial media
  34. solid artificial media
    separates mixtures of bacteria
  35. liquid artificial media
    never used to separate mixtures of bacteria
  36. non-pathogenicity
    do not cause disease
  37. avirulent (non-virulent)
    do not cause disease
  38. pathogenic
    cause disease
  39. Pathogenicity
    ability to make diease
  40. virulence
    degree of pathogenicity

    opposite of attenuation
  41. attenuation
    ability of virus to change under lab conditions to become less virulent (harmless)

    damage in way disease can't be produced
  42. Pasteurization
    application of temperatures to kill microorganism
  43. immunity
    protection from a disease due to inoculation
  44. Tyndallization
    boiling more than once to destroy resistant forms of bacteria endospores
  45. pure culture
    culture that contains only ont type of microorganism
  46. Vaccination
    inoculation to form immunity to a disease
  47. cell-mediated immunity
    engulf bacteria and digest
  48. humoral mediated immunity
    produce to kill bacteria neutralize w/liquid

    ex. attenuated
  49. passive immunity
    transsfer of antibodies from parent to offspring
  50. Active immunity
    The production of antibodies against a specific agent by the immune system
Card Set
Micro Ch 1
Test 1