Nervous tissue S1M1

  1. Ganglion contain
    cell bodies
  2. Cell bodies are found in what three places,
    Ganglion, spinal cord, and brain
  3. Most of the spinal nerves are mixed which means,
    They contain motor and sensory nerves
  4. The somatic cell bodies are located where,
    In the CNS
  5. Somatic neurons are unique in that they contain
    1 Neuron (CNS)
  6. The two brances of the ANS, Parasympathetic and sympathetic contain how many nuerons between the CNS and the target organ
    They have two neurons, one is found in the CNS and the other in autonomic ganglia
  7. What are the only gial cells outside the central nervous system
    Schwann cells
  8. The development of the spinal cord from the embryo is via
    Neural tube
  9. The development of the Sensory nerve fibers and sensory neurons, autonomic ganglia and Schwann cells from the embryo is via
    Neural crest cellsImage Upload 2
  10. Most neurons are located within the
    CNS, others located in the PNS within the ganglion
  11. Neurons are different from other cells in that they
    Cannot divide
  12. The different structures and landmarks of the neurons are
    Image Upload 4

    • Light Blue structure is the nucleuolus
    • White portion is the nucleus
    • Blue is the mitochondria
  13. Soma (Cell body) makes
    Protein (nuerotransmitters)
  14. Nissl bodies are not a part of
    The axon at all
  15. There are many microtubules in the
    Axon and the dendrites
  16. The axon has no machinery to make
    Proteins, so they have to be delivered there from the soma (cell body)
  17. Intermediate filaments for the neurons are called
    Neuro filaments, and they are everywhere in the cell
  18. The movement of proteins from the soma to the axon terminal is called
    Anterograde, retrograde is the opposite
  19. Proteins cannot be produced in the
    Axon terminals
  20. A cell body (soma) contains
    Nissl bodies, Axon hillock, Golgi complex, Mitochondria, Inclusions, neurofilaments, microtubules
  21. Dendrites are
    Receptor processes that receive stimuli from other neurons or from the external environment
  22. Axon
    Effector process that transmit stimuli to other neurons or effector cells.
  23. Each neuron only has one
    Axon even though it may have different numbers of dendrites.
  24. Axon begins at an elevation called the
    Axon hillock, where the action potential generated. Can extend for long distance (1m).Image Upload 6
  25. Anterograde
    From soma to the axon terminals: slow, intermediate and fast speeds
  26. Retrograde
    From axon terminals to soma
  27. Microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) are used for what specific movements
    Kinesin (for anterograde) Dynein (for retrograde)
  28. Nissl bodies contain
    Ribosomes and rough ER, and they also produce proteins
  29. A branch from the axon is called a
    Collateral branch
  30. The initial segment is where
    The action potentials are producedImage Upload 8
  31. What organelles are found in the interior of an Axon
    Smooth ER, mitochondria, microtubules, neurofilaments
  32. What lies between the presymnaptic and post symnaptic membranes,
    A synaptic cleft
  33. Synapses
    is a special cell junction that allows direct communication between cells
  34. The structure labeled C isImage Upload 10
    Presynaptic membrane/densityImage Upload 12
  35. The four different types of neurons are
    • Bipolar
    • Pseudounipolar
    • Unipolar
    • MultipolarImage Upload 14
  36. Motor neurons are found mostly in what portion of the nervous system
    The central nervous system, they are sometimes in autonomic ganglia of the PNS
  37. The dorsal root ganglia contain what type of neurons
    Bipolar and Pseudounipolar because they are sensory neurons
  38. What are Glial (Neuroglial) cells
    They are supporting cells for the neurons
  39. What are the five different glial cell types
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Astrocytes
    • Microglial
    • Ependymal Cells
    • Schwann cells
  40. Oligodendrocytes are found where and perform what function
    Only in the CNS, they form myelin sheaths (one can wrap many neurons)
  41. Astrocytes are found where and perform what function
    They are the largest Glial cell found in the CNS, and they scavage ions.

    Glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) is unique to astrocytes
  42. Microglial cells are found where and perform what function
    • Scattered throughout the CNS but originate from the bone marrow
    • Function: as phagocytes
  43. Ependymal cells have what characteristic shape and are found where
    Low columnar or cuboidal cells, Line the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.Image Upload 16
  44. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is
    A disease affecting myelin; F>M; Believed to be a autoimmune disease; distinguished by episodes of random, multifocal inflammation. Each episode of demyelination may become malignant, and lead to death in a matter of months.
  45. Schwann cells are a unique glial cell because they are
    The only neuroglia that reside in PNS

    • They produce myelin
    • In PNS, all elements (axons and cell bodies) are ensheathed by Schwann cells.
  46. Nodes of Ranvier are
    Gaps between the myelin sheath along the axon
  47. Each Schwann cell can only myelinate
    One internode of a single axon in PNS
  48. Schwann cells and nodes of Ranvier are covered by
    Basal lamina
  49. An axon potential jumping from node to node is called
    Saltatory conduction
  50. Unmyelinated axons are surrounded by
    A single layer of Schwann cell plasma membrane and cytoplasm of the Schwann cell
  51. One Schwann cell can envelop
    Several Unmyelinated axons
  52. When voltage-gated Na+ channels are along the entire length of the axon due to unmyelination what happens during a conduction
    Impulse propagation occurs by continuous conductionImage Upload 18
  53. Epineurium
    An external fibrous coat of dense connective tissue, which also fills the space between the bundles of nerve fibers.Image Upload 20
  54. Endoneurium
    Image Upload 22
  55. The structure labeled C isImage Upload 24
  56. Sensory ganglia of the spinal nerves are called
    Dorsal root ganglia
  57. Sensory ganglia
    House cell bodies of sensory neurons (Pseudounipolar neurons)
  58. Autonomic ganglia
    House cell bodies of postganglionic autonomic nerves; motor in function (Multipolar neurons)
  59. Mesaxon:
    Innermost and outermost lips schwann cells wrapped around a neuronImage Upload 26
  60. In the brain, the gray matter forms
    Outer covering or cortex
  61. The horns of the spinal cord consist of what matter
    Grey matter

    Image Upload 28
  62. The choroid plexus does what
    Produces Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  63. Choroid plexus consists of
    Invaginated folds of pia mater, rich in capillaries, covered by simple cuboidal or low columnar epitheliumImage Upload 30
  64. The venous sinuses are located in the
    Dura mater
  65. The pia mater is completely separated from the underlying neural tissue by
    Neuroglial cells
  66. Blood-Brain Barrier is contributed by
    Endothelial cells of the capillaries and their tight junctions
  67. What molecules can easily enter the BBB
    O2, H2O, CO2, and small, lipid-soluble materials, can easily enter
  68. Cerebral cortex is divided into
    Six layers
  69. Cerebellar cortex histologically has what three layers
    • Molecular
    • Purkinje
    • GranuleImage Upload 32
  70. Neurons can not proliferate but can
    Repair their axons in PNS
  71. Astrocytic scar called gliosis is from
    A damaged area repaired by the proliferation of astrocytes
  72. Anterograde degeneration (Wallerian degeneration)
    When a nerve fiber is cut or crushed in the peripheral nervous system, the portion that is distal to the cell body degenerates via macrophages. Schwann cells then create a corridor that sprouting nerves from the cell body end will travel through for a new connection
  73. During Anterograde degeneration, what happens to the muscle that was originally attached
    It undergoes atrophy
Card Set
Nervous tissue S1M1
Nervous System