Lecture #2

  1. Evidence based mgmt
    Managerial decisions and org practices informed by the best available scientific evidence
  2. Big E evidence
    Generalizable about cause-effect connections derived from scientific sources
  3. Little e evidence
    org-specific, as evidenced by root-cause analysis and other fact based approaches
  4. How to practice evidence-based mgmt
    • critically examine the quality of data and methods
    • seek collective wisdom
    • contextualize evidence and isolate variations
    • make time to access new evidence
    • create a culture of evidence-based decision making
  5. Training method must match the outcome
    What do we want to have happen to the trainees?
  6. Transfer rates for traditional programs are often low
    • 20% of all money spent on training transfers to the job
    • Knowing-doing gap
  7. The role of training function has changed
    • Focus now on supporting business strategy
    • Shift from pure training to performance mgmt
    • Must form a learning organization
  8. Trainee motivation matters
    • W/O motivated learners, training programs will fail
    • Motivation to learn is highly related to KSB gains AND perceived utility of training
  9. Training skills will decay over time
    • If you don't use it, you'll lose it
    • Very few firms offer refresher training
  10. Work environment matters
    • What happens before and after training matters
    • Must promote a transfer climate (managerial support and situational constraints)
  11. Formal training is not the primary source of learning
    People learn more by informal means
  12. Poor alignment between individual & org needs hinders transfer of learning
    • Needs analysis from all three levels is necessary
    • Lack of alignment with the firm's strategy is a primary contributor of low levels of transfer
  13. Type of performance problems in relation to T&D
    • Can't do - training can help due to the lack of KSBs
    • Won't do - probably not an issue for training, but one more motivation
  14. Needs assessment
    • Org analysis - where are we offering training and why
    • Person analysis - who is going to be trained
    • Task analysis - what is going into the training program
  15. Org analysis
    Answers Alignment of training & business strategy, Availability of resources, Managerial & employee support

    Where we find the answers: Org. goals, objectives, & budgets; labor inventories & workforce analyses; Efficiency indices & climate surveys
  16. Task (competency) analysis
    Questions answered: Important tasks & KSB that need to be trained, Type (technique) of training that is necessary

    Where we find the answers: Job descriptions or performance standards; Observation, interviews, literature reviews
  17. Facets of training readiness
    • personal characteristics
    • work context characteristics
  18. Trainability
    • basic skills
    • cognitive ability

    Both matter. Can't do much about cognitive ability, but can change basic skills (which is a better predictor of learning)
  19. How to increase motivation to learn
    • Speak positively about company’s training programs
    • Explain why & how training relates to the job
    • Provide feedback when employees attempt to use training content on the job
    • Encourage a peer group mentality
    • Ensure time & opportunities to practice & apply learning
  20. Self-efficacy
    belief that one has the capacity to successfully learn the content of the training program

    • Strong predictor of training success and on the job performance
    • Good training programs should increase self-efficacy
  21. How to increase self efficacy
    • Help people understand that the purpose of training is to try to improve performance (vs. identify incompetence) (assigning people to training could have a minor negative impact of self-efficacy)
    • Provide as much information as possible about the training program & purpose of training before hand
    • Show or describe peers’ training success in similar jobs
    • Provide feedback that learning is under their control
    • Explain that they have the ability & responsibility to overcome any learning difficulties
  22. Valence
    Utility perception of something (in this case, training)
  23. How do people low in self-efficacy & skill proficiency tend to rate tasks & skills
    Less important
  24. How to conduct a task analysis
    • Select the job(s) or work role(s) to be analyzed
    • Develop a preliminary list of tasks that the job requires
    • Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks
    • Identify the KSs necessary for successful performance of each task
Card Set
Lecture #2