Chapter 10

  1. Amines
    Stryctural variations of the amino acid tyrosine; thyroxine, epinephrine
  2. Proteins
    • Peptides are short chains
    • Insulin , GH , glucagon are proriens; ADH & oxytocin are peptides
  3. Steroids
    Made frm cholesterol; aldosterone, estrogen, testosterone
  4. Posterior pituitary
    Stpres hormones produced by hypothalamus : ADH, Oxytocin
  5. Anterior pituitary
    Secretionsare regulated by realsing hormones frm thw hypothalmus : GH, TSH, ACTH, Prolactin, FSH, LH
  6. GH
    Through Intermediary molecules, IGFs GH increases amino acid transport into cells & increase protien synthesis; increases rate of mitosis; increases use of fats for energy. Stimulus: GHRH frm the hypothalamus
  7. TSH
    Increases secretion of thyroxine & T3 by the thyroid. Stimulus: TRH from the hypothalmus
  8. ACTH
    Increases secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. Stmulus: PRH ftom hypothalamus
  9. Prolactin
    Initiates & maintains milk production by the mammary glands. Stimulus: PRH from the hypothalmus
  10. FSH in women
    initates development of ova in ovarian follicles & secretion of estrogen by follicle cells
  11. FSH in men
    Inititates sperm development in testes. Stimulus GnRH frm hypothalamus
  12. LH in women
    Stimulates ovulation transforms mature follicle into corpus luteum & stimulates secretion of progesterone
  13. LH in men
    Stimulates secretion of testosterone by the testes. Stimulus: GnRH from hypothalamus
  14. Thyroxine T4 & T3
    • Produced by thyroid follicles
    • Increase use of all food types for energy & increase protien synthesis. Necessary for normal physical, mental, & sexual development. Stimulus : TSH frm the anterior pituitary
  15. Catcitonin
    Produced by parafollicular cells decrease reabsorbption of calcium level. Stimulus: hypercalcemia
  16. PTH
    Increases reabsorption of cacium & phosphate by the small intestine; increases reabsorption of calcium & excretion of phosphate by the kidneys & activates vitamin D. Result: raises blood calcium levels. Stimulus: hypocalcemia. Inhibitor: hypercalcemia
  17. Glucagon
    Secreted by alpha cells Stimulates liver to change glycogen to glucose; increases use of fats & amino acids for energy. Result: raises blood glucose level. Stimulus: hypoglycemia
  18. Insulin
    • Secreted by beta cells
    • Increase use of glucose by cells to produce energy; stimulates liver & muscles to change glucose to glycogen; increases cellular intake of fatty acids & amino acids to use for synthesis of lipids & protiens Result: lowers blood glucose level. Stimulus: hyperglycemia
  19. Somatostatin
    Inhibits secretion of insulin & glucagon
  20. Norepinephrine
    Stimulates vasoconstriction & raises blood pressure produced in adrenal medulla in stress situations
  21. Epinephrine
    Increases heart rate & force causes vascoconstriction in skin & viscera & vasodilation in skeletal muscles; dilates bronchioles; slow peristalsis; causes liver to change glycogen to glucose; increases use of fats for energy; increases rate of cell respiration. Stimulus: sympathetic impulses from hypothalamus
  22. Adrenal cortex
    Produces mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and very small amounys of sex hormones
  23. Aldosterone
    Increase reaborption of sodium & excertion of potassium by the kidneys Results: hydrogen ions are excreted in exchange for sodium; chloride & bicarbonate ions & water follow sodium back to the blood, maintains normal blood pressure. Stimulus: decreased blood pressure. Stimulus: decreased blood potassium; decreased blood volume or blood pressure ( activates the renin-angiotension mechanism of the kidneys)
Card Set
Chapter 10
endocrine system