ANS 42

    • Humans have hearing from 20 Hzà

    • 17,000 Hz
    • Dogs 20 Hzà 30,000 Hz

    • Cats 30 Hzà 45,000 Hz (2 octaves higher than a human)

    • Rodents 30 Hzà 80,000 Hz

    • Bats 13,000 Hzà 130,000 Hz

    • Reptiles 50 Hzà 1500 Hz
    • Dogs see 20-50 and

    • cats 20-75 to 20-100
  3. Visual field
    • In humans ~t 210°

    • cats= 285°
    • Brachycephalic dogs=250°
    • dolichocephalic= 290°
    • horse= 350°
  4. Retina
    • has cells that detect low light images and

    • consists of rods and cones
  5. Rods
    • receptors of images in low light but do not

    • detect color because there is 1 type of rod photoreceptor. In humans the rods are on the exterior of the retina. In dogs and cats the rods are much more functional and have about 97%
    • of there photoreceptors as rods.
  6. Cones
    • photoreceptors that function in the bright

    • light and detect color. In humans they are in the center of the retina and there are 3 types of cone receptors. Dogs have 2 types of cones which is why
    • that can’t distinguish reds and oranges but can see blues very well.
  7. Behind the retina is a mirror like structure which reflects the light back and then can be
    detected by the rod.

    tapetum lucidum
  8. Ways to increase stride length:

    • Shrinking the clavicle

    • Flexible spines
    • Various foot forms
  9. walking on full foot (humans, bears, raccoons),
    good for stability and walking
  10. walking on the balls of the foot; increases leg
    length which increases stride length (relative to plantigrade) this increases speed but is a little less stable. Cats, dogs, birds. Predators.

  11. walking on the tips of toes, increases stride
    length even further, increase speed, but less stable. Deer, antelope. Prey animals

  12. continues development postnatal. born naked, blind, and helpless. Ex. Kitten, mice, puppies

    Altricial young
  13. somewhat mature at birth, mobile, can
    fend for themselves. Ex. Lamb

    Precocial young
  14. fear age
    is 8-12 weeks and again at 8-10 months

  15. TAME-
    • The state in which an animal’s tendency to flee

    • from humans has been gradually eliminated.
    • The first step in domestication.
  16. how close you can get to an animal before it

    Flight distance
  17. an individual of a domesticated species that is
    no longer integrated into human environment
  18. Traits that favor domestication

    • social hierarchy (leader-follower)

    • Males affiliated w/ the group
    • Promiscuous matings
    • Males dominant over females
    • Short flight distance
    • Acceptance of human environments
    • Broad Dietary requirements
    • ability to be confined

  19. 5 consequences of domestication
    • 1. Neoteny
    • 2. Reproductive Efficiency increases: early onset reproduction (puberty), increase cycling & litter size
    • 3. Decrease in stress level: stress hormones are decreased, decrease in the tissue that makes the hormones, smaller adrenal glands
    • 4. Decrease in survival skills
    • 5. Increased evidence of genetically unfavorable traits

  20. Attitudes towards Animals
    • Utilitarian- interest in animals as resources

    • Humanistic- interest as animals as companions

    • Moralistic- interest in animals as moral subjects

    • Naturalistic- interest & concern for wildlife

    • Ecological- interest & concern for wildlife & ecosystems.

  21. 5 Farm Animal Freedoms

    • Freedom from

    • 1. Hunger and thirst
    • 2. Discomfort
    • 3. pain
    • 4. Freedom to express normal behaviors
    • 5. Fear and distress
  22. 3 R’s for animal research

    • Reduction

    • Refinement
    • Replacement
  23. species that are active at dusk and dawn


  24. species that are active at day


  25. came from 3 that were captured in 1930 in Syria. have large ear with well developed
    hearing. Nocturnal, solitary, will bite and claw , can hibernate & drop body temp to 1 degree above room temp. Life span is 2-3 years, need
    regular handling

  26. CAVY
  27. originated in South America (Peru) (used for
    food) and brought to Europe in the 16th century. Tailless, social (sets up a hierarchy) , don’t usually bite, natural habitat is grassy
    meadows, don’t burrow but will use existing burrows, don’t jump but run well, crepuscular, subject to heat stroke, life span 6-8 years, provoke allergies
    (one of the worst for causing allergies)

  28. Nocturnal, from Asia, domesticated by the
    Chinese and Japanese, do not concentrate urine or conserve water- need lots of water, tend to be docile & only bite if scared, social, if you plan on housing males together you must wean them together. Like places to hide, known or genetic diversity, life span ~ 2 yrs.

  29. nocturnal, from Central Asia for rat terrier
    competitions, drink a lot of water, very adaptable, opportunistic , docile,trainable, social, not nearly as territorial as mice. Very strong, sweat through paws and tails

  30. from Mt regions of south america, captivated for their pelts, social, nocturnal, heat sensitive, docile, can project urine w/ accuracy, trainable, 10 yr life span
  31. illegal in ca, wide tolerance for climate change- bioinvasion, eat seeds, diurnal in the wild, nocturnal in captivity, conserve water, burrowers, highly developed claws, socially monogamous, 2-4 yr life span, can have tail slip.
  32. domesticated in rome, descendant of the rabbit, very heat sensitive, Not a rodent but a lagamorph, plantigrade, corpuscular, gregarious, territorial, 5-10 yr life span
  33. Name and explain 2 extreme viewpoints associated with human-animal interactions according to Kathleen Morgan/ Notional Animal Interest Alliance
    • Animal exploitation- "humans have absolute dominion over animals. Can be used or abused for any purpose."
    • Animal Liberation- "animals should not be put to work or to produce for our benefit in any way. Eliminate all types of animal use as well as abuse. Keeping pets is enslavement.
  34. Canadian ethicist David Sztybel IDs people who use animals as _______
    all having some view of 'welfare' and that those people who use animals rationalize the use.
  35. Operant behavior
    behavior controlled by the consequences that arise from executing that behavior. The two recognized consequences are reinforcement or punishment.
  36. Reinforcement in general, happens ____ with the action of the animal.
  37. Punishment
    usually occurs AFTER the action has occurred
  38. Bridging stimulus
    is often necessary to provide instantaneous positive reinforcement for actions done at a distance
  39. Counterconditioning
    training the animal to respond and execute a behavior that is incompatible with the behavior you don’t like
  40. What 2 sensory organs must cats have for the righting reflex to work?
    • sight
    • vestibular apparatus
  41. Vestigial
    greatly reduced, rudimentary or degenerate structure; a structure that is no longer needed in that species so its physical shape is minimized
  42. Socialization
    exposing an animal to all the elements that it will experience in its life; similar to imprinting in allowing the animal to identify what are individuals within its community/living group.
Card Set
ANS 42
animal science 42 companion animal