Blood Composition

  1. What type of tissue is blood?
    Connective Tissue
  2. What does blood consist of?
    Plasma+ cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets)
  3. What is the difference between plasma and serum?
    Serum= plasma- fibrinogen
  4. What is in plasma?
    albumin, and fibrinogen, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride, and lipids
  5. Functions of Blood
    transport, regulation, and protection/ defence
  6. Hematopoiesis-
    The production of blood cells
  7. Erythropoiesis-
    The production of red blood cells
  8. Hemoglobin-
    The protein in red blood cells that carry oxygen ( 4 hems perglobin so it carries 4 O2 molecules)
  9. Senescence-
    The natural destruction of red blood cells due to age (10% intravascular/ 90% extravascular)
  10. Leukopoiesis-
    The production of leukocytes (white blood cells)
  11. Granulocytes-
    A white blood cell that contains secondary, also known as specific, cytoplasmic granules. 3 types- Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
  12. Agranulocytes-
    White blood cell that does not contain secondary granules. 2 types- Lymphocytes and Monocytes
  13. Diapedesis-
    cells squeeze through the endothelium and crawl to site of injury
  14. Chemotaxis-
    chemical distress signal from damaged tissue to WBC’s
  15. Leukocyte-
    White blood cell
  16. Erythrocyte-
    Red blood cell
  17. Leukocytosis-
    Increased number leukocytes of in the blood
  18. Leukopenia-
    Decreased number of leukocytes in the blood
  19. Neutrophilia-
    Increased number neutrophils of in the blood
  20. Neutropenia-
    Decreased number of Neutrophils in the blood
  21. Eosinophilia-
    Increased number of eosinophils in the blood
  22. Monocytosis-
    Increased number of monocytes in the blood
  23. Lymphocytosis-
    Increased number of lymphocytes in the blood
  24. Lymphopenia-
    Decreased number of lymphocytes in the blood
  25. Polycythemia-
  26. How do you calculate Blood volume?
    75mls/kg of lean body weight/ can lose up to 25% before it’s critical
  27. PVC-
    Pack Cell Volume/ the % of whole blood that is made up of RBC’s
  28. TP-
    Total Protein/ fibrinogen, Albumin, and Globulins- normal for most species is 6.0-8.0 g/dl
  29. Plasma Protein-
    Total protein without Fibrinogen
  30. Fibrinogen-
    Made in the liver and is necessary for clotting/ < or = 5% of total protein
  31. Albumin-
    Made in the liver, is important for transport, and helps maintain osmotic pressure/ 30-50% of total protein
  32. Globulin-
    Consists of many different proteins, some are immunoglobulins, IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, others responsible for binding heme
  33. Lymphocyte-
    WBC, agranulocytic, Non-phagocytic, #1 responder to viruses and cancer, most common in pigs and ruminants, only one not matured in bone marrow, 3 types= t-lymph, b-lymph, and natural killer, Non-specific and Specific immunity
  34. Monocyte-
    WBC, agranulocytic, Macrophages, Responds to Chronic bacterial infections, fugal infections, and foreign material, Largest of WBC’s, accounts for about 5% of WBC’s, helps lymphocytes with specific immunity
  35. Neutrophil-
    WBC, granulocytic, #1 responder to bacteria, most abundant WBC in Cats and dogs, non-staining granules, pink/ light blue cytoplasm, segmented nucleus
  36. Eosinophil-
    WBC, granulocytic, # 1 responder to allergies and parasites, accounts for about 5% of circulating WBC, red staining granules
  37. Basophil-
    WBC, granulocytic, responds to allergic response, least prevalent and understood, heparin and histamine in granules, blue staining granules
  38. Macrophages-
    clean-up crew
  39. What do all blood cells start out as?
    Pluripotent Stem Cells (PPSC)
  40. Erythropoietin-
    Hormone released by Kidney and sent to red bone marrow in response to hypoxia
  41. Hypoxia-
    insufficient levels of oxygen in blood and tissue
  42. The Spleen-
    made of two parts (red and white pulp) that has a giant storage capacity for blood
  43. Red-pulp-
    Blood sinuses in the spleen where large volumes of blood are store and can be released when needed
  44. White-pulp-
    sinuses in the spleen the store white-cells and aid in immunity
  45. Breakdown the word hemoglobin-
    heme= pigment and globin= protein
  46. What does blood transport?
    O2, waste, Thrombocytes, hormones, and blood cells
  47. What does blood help regulate?
    Temp, pH, homeostasis, hydration
  48. Hemoconcentration-
    dehydrationàlow water content in blood
  49. Hemodilution-
    over-hydrationàhigh water content in blood
  50. How much of the body is blood?
    About 7%
  51. About how much blood can a 4x4 hold?
    About 10-15mls soaked
  52. Reasons for anemia?
    Blood loss, hemolysis, RBC destruction, decreased production, decreased hemoglobin, and more
  53. Where should we draw blood from?
    • Cats and dogs- jugular, cephalic, or saphenous
    • Equine- jug
    • Bovine- jug, tailvein
    • Avian- jug, wing vein
    • Rabbit- ear vein, cephalic
    • Pir- Ear vein, vena cava
  54. EDTA: where is it and what does it do?
    In purple tops, it is an anticoagulant that binds with calcium
  55. Hemolysis-
    destruction of erythrocytes
  56. Lipemia-
    presence of fat material in plasma or serum
  57. Increase in both PCV and TP=
  58. Decrease in both PCV and TP=
    acute blood loss or hemodilution
  59. Increased PCV and normal TP=
    splenic contraction
  60. Decrease in PCV and normal TP=
    hemolysis/hemolytic anemia or decreased RBC production
Card Set
Blood Composition
Clinical Pathology