Anatomy 2

  1. What are the 2 stresses
    eustress and distress
  2. what stress is good and what stress is bad?
    eustress is good, distress is bad
  3. Any stimulus that produces a stress response is called a
  4. What is a stressor?
    almost any disturbance of the human body...heat or cold, environmental poisons, toxins given off by bacteria, heavy bleeding from a wound or surgery, or a strong emotional reaction
  5. how are the responses to stressors?
    pleasant or unpleasant
  6. What are stress response or general adaptation syndrome?
    a variety of stressful conditions or noxious agents elicity a similar sequence of BODILY CHANGES
  7. What are is the stress response controlled by?
    mainly the hypothalamus
  8. What are the 3 stages of the stress response?
    1. an initial fight or flight response

    2. a slower resistance reaction

    3. exhaustion
  9. What is initiated by nerve impulses from the hypothalamus to the sympathetic division of the ANS, including the adrenal medulla, and quickly mobilizes the body's resources for immediate physical activity
    the fight or flight response
  10. What brings huge amounts of glucose and oxygen to the organs and are most active in wording off danger?
    the fight or flight response
  11. What are the organs used in the fight or flight response?
    the brain, the skeletal muscles, and the heart
  12. What is inhibited during fight or flight response?
    the nonessential body functions such as digestive, urinary and reproductive activities
  13. What stage in the stress response is initiated by nerve impulses from the hypothalamus?
    the resistance reaction
  14. What is initiated in large part by hypothalamic releasing hormones and is a longer lasting response?
    the resistance reaction
  15. What hormones are involved in the resistance reaction?
    corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

    growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

    thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
  16. What does CRH stimulate?
    the anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH, which in turn stimulates the adrenal cortex to increase release of cortisol.
  17. What releases cortisol?
    the adrenal cortex
  18. Cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis by liver cells, breakdown of triglycerides into ___ ____and catabolism of proteins into ___ ___
    fatty acids

    amino acids
  19. What does cortisol do?
    reduces inflammation
  20. The resistance stage helps the body continue fighting a stressor long after the ___ or ___ response dissipates

  21. Why does your heart continue to pound for several minutes even after the stressor is removed?
    Because the resistance stage helps the body continue to fight longer than the fight or flight response
  22. When does exhaustion ensue?
    when the resources of the body eventually become so depleted that they cannot sustain the resistance stage.
  23. What happens with prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol and other hormones involved in the resistance reaction?
    wasting of muscle, suppression of the immune system, ulceration fo the GI tract and failure of pancreatic beta cells
  24. What are some stress related disorders?
    gastritis, ulcerative colitis, IBS, hypertension, asthma, rheumatiod arthritis, migraine headaches, anxiety, and depression.
  25. people under stress are at a greater risk of developing chronic ___ or ___ prematurely

  26. What is an important like between stress and immunity?
  27. what does interleukin-1 do?
    stimulates secretion of ACTH, which stimulates cortisol
  28. What does cortisol do for stress?
    provides resistance to stress and inflammation & suppresses further production of interleukin-1
  29. the immune system ___ __ the stress response and the resulting cortisol then ___ ___ one immune system mediator.
    turns on

    turns off
  30. What are used as immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients?
    cortisol and other glucocorticoids
  31. What is PTSD?
    an anxiety disorder that may develop in an individual who has experienced, witnessed or learned about a physically or psychologically distressing event
  32. what can cause PTSD?
    terrorism, hostage taking, imprisonment, military duty, serious accidents, torture, sexual or physical abuse, violent crimes, school shootings, massacres, and natural disasters
Card Set
Anatomy 2
the stress response pg 675