Bio Lecture ch 22 Vocab

  1. Phylogeny
    the evolutionary history of relationships among organisms or their genes
  2. Phylogenic Tree
    • a diagram that portrays a reconstruction of that history
    • used to predict the evolutionary history of species, populations, and genes.
  3. Taxon
    any group of species that is designated a name
  4. Clade
    any taxon that consists of all the evolutionary descendants of a common ancestor
  5. sister species
    two species that are each other's closest relatives
  6. Sister clades
    two clades that are each other's closest relatives
  7. Systematics
    the study and classifications of biodiversity
  8. Tree of Life
    the complete evolutionary history of life
  9. Homologous features
    • any feature inherited from a common ancestor
    • may be heritable traits or behavioral traits
  10. Ancestral trait
    a trait found in a group that was already present in the ancestor of that group
  11. Derived trait
    a trait found in a descendant that differs from its ancestral form
  12. Synamorphies
    • Derived traits that are shared among a group of organisms
    • are viewed as evidence of of the common ancestry of the group
  13. Convergent Evolution
    a phenomenon in which independently evolved traits exposed to similar pressures may become superficially similar
  14. evolutionary reversal
    a characteristic may revert from a derived state back to an ancestral state
  15. Homoplasies (homoplastic trait)
    similar traits generated by convergent and evolutionary reversals
  16. Ingroup
    the group of organisms of primary interest
  17. Outgroup
    • a point of reference for the ingroup
    • ingroup compared to this group
  18. Parsimony Principle
    states that the preferred example of observed data is the simplest explanation
  19. Maximum Likelihood
    method that identifies the tree that most likely produced the observed data
  20. Molecular Clock
    • uses the average rate and which given gene protein accumulates changes to gauge the time of divergence for a particular split in a phylogeny
    • made using independent data, fossil record, known times of divergence, or biogeographic dates
  21. Binomial Nominclature
    a naming system that allows scientists to refer unambiguously same organisms by the same name
  22. Genus
    A group of closely related species
  23. Family
    The taxon above the genus
  24. Orders
    groups of families
  25. Classes
    Groups of orders
  26. Phyla
    groups of classes
  27. Kingdom
    groups of phyla
  28. monophyletic
    the taxon contains an ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor and no other organisms
  29. polyphyletic
    a group that does not include its common ancestor
  30. Paraphyletic
    a group that does not include all the descendants of a common ancestor
Card Set
Bio Lecture ch 22 Vocab
Ch 22 Vocab "Reconstructing and Using Phylogenies"