Sub-Saharan Africa.txt

  1. Polyrhythm
    Rhythms that occur simultaneously in two different meters, or with different starting points.
  2. Downbeats
    The stressed beginning of a metrical cycle.
  3. Responsorial forms
    • "Call and response"
    • An exchange between a single performer's vocal or instrumental call and a group response.
  4. Ostinato
    • Short pattern that repeats over and over
    • Usually refers to a repeating melody but can also refer to a repeating rhythm
    • Form foundations for improve, variation, or addition of other patterns
  5. Background shimmer
    Beads, coins, or small objects attached to instruments to create a buzzing or rattling in the background
  6. Tonal
    Language in which the meanings of words depend on their inflection
  7. Inflection
    Relative pitch at which words are spoken
  8. Talking drum
    A drum that can imitate the rhythm and common pitch levels of speech so that listeners can understand what is being "said"
  9. Elbow stick
    • Made of two sticks attached at an angle or carved from a piece of wood.
    • Allows player to stand behind the drum and strike the head with a solid, straight impact.
  10. Whisper singing
    Soft, breathy, almost growling tone of singing.
  11. Yodeling
    Quick jumps between vibrational modes in the vocal cords
  12. Alternation playing
    Creating a melody by dividing pitches among different players
  13. Musical bow
    A single string attached to two ends of a curved stick.
  14. Bow harp
    Several strings attached to two ends of a curved stick.
  15. Triangular harp
    Wooden frame of two or three parts with strings strung between them
  16. Ewe drumming
    • Drumming of the Ewe people of Ghana. Lead drummer sets tempo and directs other drums and dancers with musical cues.
    • Instruments
    • Atoke
    • Gankogui
    • Axatse
    • Atsimewu
  17. Hatsiatsia
    A bell piece during which dancers rest
  18. Atoke
    • Folded piece of iron that looks like a boat.
    • Held in the palm and hit with a small metal stick.
  19. Gankogui
    • Double iron bell welded together for two different pitches.
    • Timekeeper of the group.
  20. Axatse
    • A gourd with a net of beads on the outside.
    • Can be shaken, hit on a palm or leg, or twisted.
  21. Astimewu
    • Master or lead drum.
    • Played with a combination of sticks and hands.
    • Tall and cylindrical.
  22. Kaganu
    High pitched drum in Ewe ensemble
  23. Sogo
    Low-pitched drum in Ewe ensemble
  24. Kidi
    Drum in Ewe ensemble
  25. Wu-gbe
    Drumming language that associates syllables with different strokes.
  26. Atsia
    • A traditional Ewe drumming piece that is played by different clubs in many ways.
    • Has lyrics about the performance itself.
    • Means "display" or "style"
  27. Jail/jeli music
    • Music in African societies that didn't have a written language.
    • Used to commit history to memory.
  28. Griots
    The French word for a performer of Jali music
  29. Kora
    • A large chordophone played by the jali
    • A hybrid harp-lute with strings played by both hands on either side of the bridge.
    • Heptatonic and can be tune to play with the balafon.
  30. Kumbengo
    • Standard ostinato patterns that kora music is based on.
    • Defined by a sequence of core tones.
  31. Birimintingo
    Embellishments that interrupt kumbengo in kora music
  32. Balafon/bala
    • Wooden xylophone with gourd resonators under each bar.
    • Heptatonic, and the kora can be tuned to play with the balafon
  33. Mory Kante
    Senegalese Jali musician that produced a rock-fusion album
  34. Foday Musa Suso
    Jali musician in the US that founded the Mandingo Griot Society
  35. Yundum Nko
    • "Man from Yundum"
    • By Nyama Suso, a jali musician
  36. Tomoraba
    • Diatonic scale, roughly equivalent to major mode.
    • Used commonly among kora players.
  37. Mbira music
    • Music played with the mbira - has metal tines plucked with the fingers and has shells or bottle caps attached for a background buzz with a gourd for a resonator.
    • Has deep spiritual significance among the Shona people.
    • A traveler's personal pastime instrument
  38. Mbira dzavadzimu
    The large, traditional mbira of the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
  39. Bira
    A ritual that calles the spirits of ancestors using the mbira
  40. Hosho
    A rattle used in combination with the mbira
  41. Ngoma
    Small drum used in combination with the mbira
  42. Huro
    • Loud cries improvised at the top of the singer's range
    • Ornamented with glissandi (sliding pitches) and yodeling
  43. Mahon'era
    A soft breathy voice at the bottom of the singer's range improvised with vocables
  44. Vocables
    Syllables chosen for expressive qualities but without any other meaning
  45. Nyamaropa
    The oldest and most representative traditional pieces in the Shona mbira repertoire.
  46. Fela Kuti
    • African pop musician.
    • Played saxophone, keyboards, and sang.
    • Style was "Afro-beat" and he sang in pidgin English.
    • Music was a powerful social force in modern Africa.
  47. Highlife
    European musical forms and instruments played by Africans.
  48. Juju
    Popular band music in Nigeria similar to highlife
  49. "King" Sunny Ade
    Highlife and juju artist that became a pop star in America an dEurope.
  50. Fuji
    • Nigerian style that drew on Islamic praise songs, traditional talking drum music (apala)
    • Features huge percussion sections but no guitars
  51. Apala
    Traditional talking-drum music of West Africa
  52. Mbalax
    Senegalese style that popularized innovative connections to traditional instruments, styles, and forms
  53. Gumboot
    • Style of dance performed by workers in diamond mines.
    • Clap and slap boots to the accompaniment of a guitar.
  54. Isicathulo
    • Style of dance performed by workers in diamond mines.
    • Clap and slap boots to the accompaniment of a guitar.
  55. Mbube
    • Style of improvised folk harmonies
    • developed from Western chords
    • sung by a cappella groups
    • Popular in Zulu areas
  56. Pennywhistle
    Cheap tin whistles played in kwela
  57. Jive/kwela
    Music played using pennywhistles and a one-string bass in South African townships
  58. Sax jive/mbaqanga
    • Replaced pennywhistle with saxophone
    • Replaced acoustic with electric guitar
    • Drew on American rhythm and blues and traditional ostinatos and gumboot music
  59. Iscathamiya
    A cappella music in South Africa
  60. Ladysmith Black Mambazo
    Iscathamiya group that played with Paul Simon on Graceland
Card Set
Sub-Saharan Africa.txt
Sub-Saharan Africa