1. Oubain--blocks sodium/potassium pump
  2. What produces Ach in the CNS?
    Nucleus Basalis
  3. Deficiency of Ach in the CNS?
    Alzeimers, Huntington
  4. Tetraethylammonium
    Block K+ ion channel
  5. tetradotoxin
    Blocks Na+ ion channel
  6. Diagnosis for Myesthenia Gravis?
    Endrophonium ( short term anti Achesterase)
  7. Treatment for Myesthenia Gravis?
  8. Cure for Myesthenia Gravis?
    • Neostigmine
    • Anti-inflammatory
    • Immune-suppresants
    • Thymectomy
  9. Mode of action of Sarin Gas?
    Permanantly deactives Achesterase
  10. What determines if the binding of Ach will have excitatory or inhibitory effect?
    • Ion channels on the post synaptic membrane
    • i.e
    • Na+---excitatory
    • Cl----inhibitory
  11. What nt is always excitatory in the CNS?
  12. What nt is always inhibitory in the CNS?
  13. Post synaptic potentials are ligand or voltage dependent?
    ligand gated
  14. Action potentials are ligand or voltage dependent?
    Voltage dependent
  15. What limits frequency of AP?
    Absolute refractory Periods
  16. Voltage gated channels are only present on what part of the neuron?
    node of ranvier
  17. The delay between AP and PSP is commonly called?
    Synaptic Delay
  18. Short term memory is dependent on what?
    presynaptic Ca
  19. What is presynaptic facilitation?
    nt binding decreases K+ permeability, leaving + inside, depolarizing the membrane--membrane is hyperexcitable
  20. What is presynaptic inhibition?
    nt binding increases Cl- permeability resulting in hyperpolarization of the membrane.---harder to depolarize
  21. What is an ionotropic hormone receptor?
    nt binding activates ion channels---quick
  22. What is an metabotropic hormone receptor?
    nt binding activates a 2nd messenger which then opens and ion channel---long activation and long duration
  23. What is the more of action of Botulism toxin?
    B. toxin prevents release of Ach from the presynaptic membrane
  24. Black widow spider venom has what effect on the NMJ?
    • increases influx of Ca
    • increases the release of Ach
  25. Treatment for nerve gas (sarin)
  26. What eleminates Epi and Norepinephrine in the cleft?
    An Amine pump
  27. What nt is decreased in clinical depression?
  28. Whats a common treatment for clinical depression?
    SSRI---selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
  29. Which GABA receptor is ionotropic?
    GABA (A)
  30. What are the 2 enzymes that eliminate residual catecholamines in the cleft (epi and noepi)
    • COMT
    • MAO
  31. LSD is an agonist of what hormone?
    5 HT
  32. Aspartate is inhibitory of excitatory?
  33. What receptor has a chloride channel in the middle?
  34. What effect do EtOH, barbituaries, benzodiazopan(valium) have on the GABA receptor?
    bind to binding sites other than GABA and potentiate the effects of GABA
  35. Large molecule peptide nt are ?
    Endorphins and Enkephalins
  36. What receptor do endorphins and enkephalins bind to?
    Opiate receptors
  37. Opium mimics the effects of what 2 large nt?
    endorphins and enkephalins
  38. Substance P mediates what ?
  39. Alpha motor neurons innervate what fibers?
    Extrafusal fibers
  40. Gamma motor neurons innervate what muscle fibers?
    Intrafusal fibers
  41. Gamma motor neuron innervates the fiber where?
    at the striated parts
  42. Type IA innervates chain and bag receptors or just one of them?
  43. Type II innervates chain and bag receptors or just one?
    just chain
  44. What are the characteristics between motor fibers?
    I, II, III, IV?
    • I--large conductance
    • II--between one and 3
    • III- small diameter...low myelination..slow conductance
    • IV--no myelination..
    • ..all have shwanna cells associated with them
  45. What is the purpose of Motor afferent fibers?
    Tell the CNS about the motor unit/system
  46. What info does Type II fiber relays?
    • --length of muscle
    • --change in length
  47. What info does Type IA relay to CNS?
    • ---length of muscle
    • --- change in length
    • --- rate of change in length
  48. Which muscle fiber is clinically insignificant?
    Type II
  49. Which motor neuron has a corkscrew shape?
    Type Ia
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