Path I

  1. Degeneration
    reversible retrogressive state in which cells/tissues adjust to sublethal conditions and demonstrate corresponding (gradation) losses of function, altered metabolism, and morphological changes
  2. Degeneration
    depends on type
  3. Degeneration
    sublethal injury to cells/tissues
  4. Degeneration
    (gross appearance)
    • larger than normal (swollen)
    • paler than normal
    • softer than normal
    • heavier than normal
  5. Degeneration
    (microscopic appearance)
    • swollen cells
    • intact nuclei
    • intact cell membranes (loss of luxury functions)
  6. Acute Cellular Swelling (Hydropic Degeneration)
    accumulation of intracellular water
  7. Acute Cellular Swelling (Hydropic Degeneration)
    all tissues - especially liver/kidney, skeletal muscle, epithelia
  8. Acute Cellular Swelling (Hydropic Degeneration)
    disruption of cellular ATP (disruption of N-K ATPase pump)
  9. Acute Cellular Swelling (Hydropic Degeneration)
    (gross appearance)
    • swollen
    • wet
    • heavy
    • grayish color
  10. Acute Cellular Swelling (Hydropic Degeneration)
    (microscopic appearance)
    • swollen cells
    • increased cytoplasmic granularity
    • cytoplasmic water spaces indistinct/irregular
    • nuclei displaced to periphery (unaffected)
  11. Fatty Degeneration
    accumulation of triglycerides in non-adipose cells
  12. Fatty Degeneration
    liver, kidney, skeletal/cardiac muscle
  13. Fatty Degeneration
    • dietary
    • fat mobilization disease
    • hepatic disease
    • hypoxia
    • toxins
  14. Fatty Degeneration
    (gross appearance)
    • swollen
    • pale
    • friable
    • greasy
    • yellow
  15. Fatty Degeneration
    (microscopic appearance)
    • cytoplasmic vacuoles with clear margins
    • remaining cytoplasm/organelles displaced - eosinophilic
    • nuclei displaced by lipid droplets
  16. Myxomatous Degeneration
    accumulation of extracellular proteinic material (resembles embryonic CT)
  17. Myxomatous Degeneration
    adipose and connective tissue
  18. Myxomatous Degeneration
    • starvation
    • malnutrition
    • wasting
    • chronic inflammation
  19. Myxomatous Degeneration
    (gross appearance)
    • soft
    • fluctuant
    • watery
    • shiny
  20. Myxomatous Degeneration
    (microscopic appearance)
    looks like fetal CT (mesenchyme)
  21. Hyaline Degeneration
    accumulation and denaturation of cytoplasmic proteins
  22. Hyaline Degeneration
    connective tissue smooth muscle, epithelia, skeletal muscle (Zenker's necrosis)
  23. Hyaline Degeneration
    buildup and coagulation of protein
  24. Hyaline Degeneration
    (microscopic appearance)
    • CT and smooth muscle - collagen condenses into extracellular, eosinophilic structureless proteinic material
    • Epithelia - eosinophilic droplets in cytoplasm (often w/hydropic degeneration); PAS +
    • Skeletal muscle - densely eosinophilic amorphous material in sarcoplasm (often w/hydropic, fatty degeneration)
  25. Autolysis
    disintigration of tissues following somatic death
  26. Autolysis
    all tissues
  27. Autolysis
    Anoxia causing rupture of lysosomes with enzymatic self-digestions and invasion of proteolytic microbes
  28. Autolysis
    (gross appearance)
    • progressive deterioration of tissues
    • coagulation (pools on down-side)
    • discoloration
    • gas/odor
  29. Autolysis
    (microscopic appearance)
    • diffuse change
    • loss of nuclear and cellular function
    • microbes without inflammatory response
Card Set
Path I
degeneration and necrosis