1. amniocentesis
    -is a special prenatal test given to some pregnant women to test for birth defects.

    -is a test during pregnancy that removes a small amount of fluid from the sac around the baby to look for birth defects and chromosome problems.
  2. amniotic fluid

    am-ni-ot-ic [am-nee-ot-ik]
    -is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy.

    -or liquor amnii is the nourishing and protecting liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a pregnant woman.
  3. endocervicitis
    -is an inflammatory condition infecting the endometrium (mucous lining) of the uterine cervical canal.

    -Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterine.

    -inflammation of the lining of the uterine cervix
  4. chorionic

    cho-ri-on-ic [kawr-ee-on-nik]
    -of, relating to, or being part of the chorion.

    -the outermost of the two membranes that completely envelop a fetus
  5. colposcopy

    col-pos-co-py [kol-pos-kuh-pee]
    -is a common gynecology follow-up for abnormal Pap smears.

    -is a way for your doctor to use a special magnifying device to look at your vulva, vagina, and cervix.
  6. culdocentesis
    -is a procedure that checks for abnormal fluid in the space just behind the vagina (cul-de-sac).

    • -is a procedure in which peritoneal fluid is obtained from the cul-de-sac(behind the vagina) of a female
    • patient.

    -refers to the extraction of fluid from the rectouterine pouch posterior to the vagina through a needle.
  7. episiotomy

    e-pi-si-ot-o-my [uh-pee-zee-ot-uh-mee]
    -is a surgical incision through the perineum made to enlarge the vagina and assist childbirth.

    -procedure where an incision is made between the vagina and anus to assist in vaginal birth.(This area is called the perineum.)
  8. galactorrhea

    ga-lac-tor-rhea-a [guh-lak-tuh-ree-uh]
    -or galactorrhoea is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
  9. gynecomastia

    gyn-e-co-mas-ti-a [jin-i-koh-mas-tee-uh]
    -is the development of abnormally large breasts in males. It is related to the excess growth of breast tissue
  10. hysterectomy
    -is an operation to remove a woman's uterus. The uterus is the place where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant.
  11. hysteroscopy
    -is a thin telescope that is inserted through the cervix into the uterus.

    -is the inspection of the uterine cavity by endoscopy with access through the cervix.
  12. lactation
    -the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
  13. mammary
    -pertaining to the mammary gland, or breast.
  14. mammoplasty
    -or mammaplasty can refer to the surgical procedure to insert cheek implants or augmentation mammoplasty, an enlarging of the breasts via implants.
  15. mastitis
    -is the inflammation of breast tissue.
  16. mastectomy
    -the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.
  17. amenorrhea
    -is the absence of menstrual bleeding and may be primary or secondary.

    -# Primary amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding and secondary sexual characteristics (for example, breast development and pubic hair) in a girl by age 14 years or the absence of menstrual bleeding with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics in a girl by age 16 years.

    -Secondary amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding in awoman who had been menstruating but later stops menstruating for 3 or more months in the absence of pregnancy, lactation (the ability to breastfeed), cycle suppression with systemic hormonal contraceptive (birth control) pills, or menopause.
  18. dysmenorrhea
    -painful menstruation.
  19. oligomenorrhea

    ol-i-go-men-or-rhe-a [ol-i-goh-men-uh-ree-uh]
    -(or oligomenorrhoea)-is infrequent (or, in occasional usage, very light) menstruation.
  20. menorrhagia

    men-or-rha-gi-a [men-uh-rey-jee-uh]
    -is an abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual period at regular intervals.
  21. metrorrhagia

    me-tror-rha-gi-a [mee-truh-rey-jee-uh]
    -is uterine bleeding at irregular intervals, particularly between the expected menstrual periods.

    -can be defined as 'off schedule' bleeding.
  22. menometrorrhagia
    -is a condition in which prolonged or excessive uterine bleeding occurs irregularly and more frequently than normal.
  23. myometrium
    -is the middle layer of the uterine wall consisting of smooth muscle cells and supporting stromal and vascular tissue.

    -The muscular outer layer of the uterus.
  24. myomectomy

    my-o-mec-to-my [mahy-uh-mek-tuh-mee]
    -sometimes also fibroidectomy, refers to the surgical removal of uterine leiomyomas, also known as fibroids.

    -is the surgical removal of fibroids from the uterus. It allows the uterus to be left in place and preserves fertility.
  25. neonatal
    -Of or relating to newborn infants or an infant.
  26. obstetrics

    ob-stet-rics [uh b-ste-triks]
    -is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of women and their children during pregnancy.
  27. oogenesis

    o-o-gen-e-sis [oh-uh-jen-uh-sis]
    -or oögenesis is the creation of an ovum (egg cell). It is the female form of gametogenesis. The male equivalent is spermatogenesis.
  28. oocyte

    o-o-cyte [oh-uh-sahyt]
    • -or ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.
    • -an egg before maturation
  29. oophorectomy
    • -is the surgical removal of an ovary or ovaries.
    • -The surgery is also called ovariectomy
  30. ovum
    -(plural ova, from the Latin word ovum meaning egg or egg cell)

    -is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete.
  31. ovarian
    -is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.
  32. anovulatory

    an-ov-u-la-to-ry [an-ov-yuh-luh-tohr-ee]
    -An anovulatory cycle is a menstrual cycle during which the ovaries do not release an oocyte. Therefore, ovulation does not take place.
  33. perineorrhaphy
    -suture of the perineum. -is the surgical repair of the perineum, usually after an episiotomy has been made to assist the delivery of a baby
  34. oophoritis
    -is an inflammation of the ovaries.

    -It is often seen in combination with salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes).
  35. salpingectomy

    sal-pin-gec-to-my [sal-pin-jek-tuh-mee]
    -is the removal of one or both of a woman's fallopian tubes, the tubes through which an egg travels from the ovary to the uterus.
  36. uterine prolapse
    -is falling or sliding of the uterus from its normal position in the pelvic cavity into the vaginal canal.
  37. vaginal orifice

    or-i-fice [awr-uh-fis]
    -is a median slit below and behind the opening of the urethra; its size varies inversely with that of the hymen.
  38. vaginitis
    -is an inflammation of the vagina.

    -It can result in discharge, itching and pain, and is often associated with an irritation or infection of the vulva.

    -It is usually due to infection.

    -The most common types of vaginitis are yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis.
  39. vulvovaginitis

    vul-vo-vag-i-ni-tis [vuhl-voh-vaj-uh-nahy-tis]
    -is inflammation or infection of the vulva and vagina.

    -is an inflammation of all or part of the external vulva (labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and/or entrance to the vagina) and the vagina.
  40. menarche

    men-ar-che [muh-nahr-kee]
    -is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female human beings.
  41. pseudocyesis

    pseu-do-cy-e-sis [soo-doh-sahy-ee-sis]
    -or false pregnancy, involves a constellation of symptoms that fool women and doctors alike.
  42. primigravida

    pri-mi-grav-i-da [prahy-mi-grav-i-duh]
    -or gravida 1 is a woman who is pregnant for the first time.
  43. primiparous
    • -A woman who is pregnant for the first time.
    • -OR-
    • Bearing young for the first time.
  44. leukorrhea
    -a thick, whitish or yellowish vaginal discharge. -or vaginal discharge during pregnancy.

    -Leukorrhea is caused by increased secretions from thevaginal walls and cervical glands.
  45. menorrhea
    -The flow of blood at menstruation.
  46. pyosalpinx
    -a collection of pus in a uterine tube.
  47. dystocia
    -(antonym eutocia) is an abnormal or difficult childbirth or labour.
  48. oxytocia
    -rapid labor.
  49. cephalic version

    ce-phal-ic [suh-fal-ik]
    -is a process by which a breech baby can sometimes be turned from buttocks or foot first to head first.
  50. dyspareunia

    dys-pa-reu-ni-a [dis-puh-roo-nee-uh]
    -is painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes.
  51. endometritis

    en-do-me-tri-tis [en-doh-mi-trahy-tis]
    -is an inflammation or irritation of the lining of the uterus (the endometrium).

    -Symptoms: Abdominal distention or swelling; Abnormal vaginal bleeding; Abnormal vaginal discharge.
  52. involution of the uterus
    -the process by which the uterus attempts to return to its prepregnancy size and condition.

    -involves uterine contraction, autolysis of myometrial cells, and epithelial regeneration and proliferation.
  53. intrauterine device

    in-tra-u-ter-ine [in-truh-yoo-ter-in]
    -(IUD) is a form of birth control; it is an object, placed in the uterus, to prevent pregnancy.
  54. multipara
    -A woman who has had 2 or more pregnancies resulting in potentially viable offspring.
  55. multigravida
    -a woman who is pregnant and has been pregnant at least twice before.
  56. nulligravida
    -A woman who has never conceived a child.
  57. nullipara

    nul-lip-a-ra [nuh-lip-er-uh]
    -A woman who has never given birth.
  58. prenatal
    -Existing or occurring before birth.
  59. primipara

    pri-mi-para [prahy-mip-er-uh]
    • -A woman who is giving birth for the first time.
    • OR
    • -A woman who is pregnant for the first time.
  60. retroversion
    -the tipping backward of an entire organ or part.

    • -a turning back; a turning or tilting backward (of an organ or part), esp. of the uterus or
    • cervix.
  61. carcinoma of the cervix
    -Malignant cells within the cervix (cervical cancer).

    Cause: human papillomavirus (HPV)

    • Symptoms:
    • *dysplasia (abnormal cell growth)
    • *carcinoma in situ (CIS), a localized form of cancer

    • Other Risk Factors:
    • *cigarette smoking
    • *multiple sexual partners
    • *weak immune system
  62. cervicitis
    Inflammation of the cervix.

    • Cause:
    • *Chlamydia trachomatis
    • *Neisseria gonorrhaeae

    • Symptoms:
    • *cervical erosions, ulcerations
    • *leukorrhea (clear, white, or yellow pus-filled vaginal discharge)
  63. carcinoma of the endometrium (endometrial cancer)
    -Malignant tumor of the uterus (adenocarcinoma).

    • common sign:
    • *postmenopausal bleeding.

    • Cause:
    • *exposed to high levels of estrogen (pills, obesity)
  64. endometriosis
    -Endometrial tissue located outside the uterus.

    • Cause:
    • *proliferation (growth) of bits of menstrual endometrium that have passed backward thru the lumen (opening) of the fallopian tube and into the peritoneal cavity.

    • Symptoms:
    • *inflammation and scar tissue
    • *dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, infertility
    • *dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
  65. fibroids
    -Benign tumors in the uterus.

    • *ALso called leiomyomata or leiomyomas
    • (lei/o = smooth, my/o = muscles, -oma = tumor)

    • Cause:
    • *fibroids grow too large

    • Symptoms:
    • *metrorrhagia
    • *pelvic pain
    • *menorrhagia
  66. ovarian carcinoma
    -Malignant tumor of the ovary
  67. ovarian cysts
    -Collections of fluid within a sac (cyst) in the ovary.
  68. pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
    -Inflammation and infection of organs in the pelvic region; salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis, endocervicitis.

    • Cause:
    • *bacterial infections (gonorrhea, chlamydia).

    • Symptoms:
    • *fever
    • *foul-smelling vaginal discharge
    • *abdominal pain (LLQ, RLQ)
    • *tenderness to palpation of the cervix.
  69. carcinoma of the breast (breast cancer)
    -Malignant tumor of the breast (arising from milk glands and ducts).
  70. fibrocystic disease
    -Numerous small sacs of fibrous connective tissue and fluid in the breast.

    • Signs:
    • *nodular (lumpy) consistency of the breast

    • Symptoms:
    • *premenstrual tenderness & fullness of the breast.
  71. abruptio placentae
    -Premature separation of the implanted placenta.

    • Cause:
    • *trauma (fall)
    • *secondary to vascular insufficiency (hypertension or preeclampsia)

    • Symptoms:
    • *sudden searing (burning) abdominal pain
    • *bleeding
  72. choriocarcinoma
    -Malignant tumor of the placenta

    • Symptoms:
    • *vaginal bleeding
    • *a positive result on a pregnancy test
    • *enlarged ovaries on examination
  73. ectopic pregnancy
    -Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location.
  74. multiple gestation
    -More than one fetus inside the uterus.

    • Cause:
    • *vitro fertilization procedures

    • High Risk for:
    • *preterm delivery, high blood pressure
    • *growth restriction, diabetes
  75. placenta previa
    -Implantation of the placenta over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterus.

    • Signs & Symptoms:
    • *painless bleeding, hemorrhage, premature labor
  76. preeclampsia
    -Abnormal condition associated with pregnancy, marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, edema, and headache.
  77. Down syndrome
    -Chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 21) results in mental retardation, retarded growth, a flat face with a short nose, low-set ears, and slanted eyes.
  78. erythroblastosis fetalis

    e-ryth-ro-blas-to-sis [ih-rith-roh-bla-stoh-sis]
    -Hemolytic disease in the newborn (HND) caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus.
  79. hyaline membrane disease
    -Acute lung disease commonly seen in the premature newborn.

    *Also called respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn (RDS).

    • Cause:
    • deficiency of surfactant, a protein necessary for proper lung function.
  80. hydrocephalus
    -Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain.

    • Cause:
    • *problem in the circulation of fluid within the brain and spinal cord, result in fluid accumulation.
  81. meconium aspiration syndrome
    -Abnormal inhalation of meconium (first stool of the fetus; thick, sticky, greenish to black substance) produces by a fetus or newborn.
  82. pyloric stenosis
    -Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum.
  83. Pap test
    -Microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix.
  84. pregnancy test
    -Blood or urine test to detect the presence of hCG.
  85. hysterosalpingography (HSG)
    -X-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material.
  86. mamography
    -X-ray imaging of the breast
  87. breast ultrasound imaging and breast MRI
    -Technologies using sound waves and magnetic waves to create images of breast tissue.
  88. pelvic ultrasonography
    -Recording images of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvic region.

    • Examine:
    • *fetal size, fetal maturity, organ development
    • *fetal and placental position.
  89. aspiration
    -Withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with an instrument using suction.
  90. cauterization
    -Destruction of tissue by burning

    • Chemicals Used:
    • *silver nitrate, dry ice, electrically heated instrument.

    • Tx:
    • *cervical dysplasia
    • *cervical erosion
  91. colposcopy
    -Visual exmination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope.
  92. conization
    -Removal of a cone-shaped section (cone biopsy) of the cervix.
  93. cryosurgery
    -Use of cold temperatures to destroy tissue.

    • Chemicals Used:
    • *liquid nitrogen
  94. culdocentesis
    -Needle aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac.
  95. dilation (dilatation) and curettage (D&C)
    -Widening the cervix and scraping off the endometrial lining of the uterus.
  96. exenteration
    -Removal of internal organs within a cavity.

    *Pelvic exenteration, removal of the organs and adjacent structures of the pelvis.
  97. laparoscopy
    -Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope (laparoscope).

    *a form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS).
  98. tubal ligation
    -Blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization from occurring.
  99. abortion (AB)
    -Spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can exist on its own.
  100. amniocentesis
    -Needle puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysis.

    • Exam for:
    • *fetal chromosomes
    • *concentrations of proteins & bilirubin
    • *fetal maturation.
  101. cesarean section
    -Surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus.
  102. chorionic villus smapling (CVS)
    -Sampling of placental tissues (chorionic villi) for prenatal diagnosis.
  103. fetal monitoring
    -Continuous recording of the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions to reduce fetal distress during labor.
  104. in vitro fertilization (IVF)
    -Egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body in a laboratory dish (in vitro) to facilitate fertilization.

    **After an incubation period of 48-72hrs, the fertilized ova are injected into the uterus thru the cervix.
  105. pelvimetry
    -Measurement of the dimensions of the maternal pelvis.

    • **helps determine if the mother's pelvis will allow passage of the fetus thru the birth canal.
    • **IMPORTANT during protracted labor or with breech presentation.
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