1. caliectasis

    -dilation of the calices (due to obstruction or infection).
  2. caliceal

    -pertaining to a calix (collecting cup of reual pelvis).
  3. cystitis

    -inflammation of the urinary bladder.
  4. cystectomy

    -surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder.
  5. cystostomy

    -artifical opening from the bladder thru abdominal wall, permitting drainage of urine.
  6. glomerular capsule (Bowman's capsule)
    -is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine.

    -A cup-shaped structure with a thin double membrane surrounding the glomerulus of each nephron
  7. meatal stenosis
    -is a narrowing of the opening of the urethra, the tube through which urine leaves the body.

    -is a narrowing (stenosis) of the opening of the urethra at the external meatus, thus constricting the opening through which urine leaves the body from the urinary bladder.
  8. paranephric
    -near the kidney.
  9. nephropathy

    -refers to damage to or disease of the kidney.
  10. nephroptosis
    -(also called floating kidney or renal ptosis) is an abnormal condition in which the kidney drops down into the pelvis when the patient stands

    -floating or hypermobile kidney; downward displacement of a kidney.
  11. nephrolithotomy

    neph-ro-li-thot-o-my [nef-roh-li-thot-uh-mee]
    -incision of the kidney for removal of calculi.
  12. hydronephrosis

    hy-dro-ne-phro-sis [hahy-droh-nuh-froh-sis]
    -is distension and dilation of the renal pelvis calyces, usually caused by obstruction of the free flow of urine from the kidney

    -is distention (dilation) of the kidney with urine, caused by backward pressure on the kidney when the flow of urine is obstructed.
  13. nephrostomy

    ne-phros-to-my [nuh-frost-uh-mee]
    -is a procedure in which a catheter (plastic tube) is inserted through the skin and into the kidney to drain it of.

    -is an artificial opening created between the kidney and the skin which allows for the drainage of urine directly from the upper part of the urinary system (renal pelvis).
  14. pyelolithotomy
    -incision of the renal pelvis for removal of calculi.

    -pyelo means renal pelvis; lithotomy means removal of stone.
  15. renal ischemia
    -or ischaemia, also called nephric ischemia is the deficiency of blood in one or both kidneys, or nephrons, usually due to functional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel.
  16. renal colic
    -is a type of pain commonly caused by kidney stones.

    -Kidney stone pain is when the stone passes through the ureter.
  17. trigonitis
    -is a condition of inflammation of the trigone region of the bladder.
  18. reteroplasty

    ret-er-o-plas-ty [ret-er-uh-plas-tee]
    -plastic surgery of a ureter.
  19. urethral stricture
    -is an abnormal narrowing of the tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder (urethra).

    • -is a narrowing of the urethra caused by injury or disease such as urinary tract infections or other forms of
    • urethritis.
  20. intravesical
    -within the urinary bladder.
  21. vesicoureteral reflux
    -(VUR) is an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys.

    -can cause swelling in the ureter and kidney.
  22. albuminuria

    al-bu-mi-nu-ri-a [al-byoo-muh-noo r-ee-uh]
    -is a pathological condition wherein albumin is present in the urine. It is a type of proteinuria.

    -is having too much protein in the urine. This is sometimes referred to as “microalbuminuria".
  23. azotemia

    az-o-te-mi-a [az-uh-tee-mee-uh]
    -is a condition where the patient's blood contains uncommon levels of urea, creatinine, and other compounds rich in nitrogen.

    -is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of nitrogen

    -containing compounds, such as urea, creatinine, various body waste compounds, and other nitrogen

    -rich compounds in the blood. It is largely related to insufficient filtering of blood by the kidneys.
  24. bacteriuria

    bac-te-ri-u-ri-a [bak-teer-ee-yoo r-ee-uh]
    -the presence of bacteria in the urine.

    -is a condition in which larger than normal numbers of bacteria are present in the urine but symptoms do not result.
  25. polydipsia
    -chronic excessive thirst and fluid intake.
  26. hyperkalemia

    hy-per-ka-le-mi-a [hahy-per-kuh-lee-mee-uh]
    -is higher-than-normal levels of potassium in the blood.
  27. ketosis
    -is a condition in which levels of ketones (ketone bodies) in the blood are elevated.
  28. ketonuria

    ke-to-nu-ri-a [kee-toh-noo-r-ee-uh]
    -A condition in which abnormally high amounts of ketone bodies (a byproduct of the breakdown of cells) are present in the urine.
  29. nephrolithiasis
    -The process of forming a kidney stone, a stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract).
  30. hyponatremia

    hy-po-na-tre-mi-a [hahy-po-nuh-tree-mee-uh]
    -is a metabolic condition in which there is not enough sodium (salt) in the body fluids outside the cells.

    -electrolyte disturbance in which the sodium concentration in the serum is lower than normal.
  31. nocturia
    -is a condition in which you wake up during the night because you have to urinate.

    -also called nycturia, is the need to get up in the night to urinate.
  32. oliguria

    ol-i-gu-ri-a [ol-i-gyoo r-ee-uh]
    -diminished urine production and excretion in relation to fluid intake.

    -is the low output of urine, It is clinically classified as an output below 400 ml/day. The decreased output of urine may be a sign of dehydration.
  33. erythropoietin

    e-ryth-ro-poi-i-tin [ih-rith-roh-poi-eet-n]
    -(EPO): An important hormone produced by the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
  34. pyuria
    -pus in the urine.
  35. lithotripsy
    -Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the non-invasive treatment of kidney stones (urinary calculosis) and biliary calculi (stones in the gallbladder or in the liver) using an acoustic pulse.

    -is a medical procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney, bladder, or ureter (tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder).
  36. uremia
    -also uraemia n. A toxic condition resulting from kidney disease in which there is retention in the bloodstream of waste products normally.

    -or uraemia (see spelling differences) is a term used to loosely describe the illness accompanying kidney failure (also called renal failure), in particular the nitrogenous waste products associated with the failure of this organ.

    -Uremia is a clinical syndrome associated with fluid, electrolyte, and hormone imbalances and metabolic abnormalities.
  37. enuresis

    en-u-re-sis [en-yuh-ree-sis]
    -an inability to control urination.
  38. diuresis

    di-u-re-sis [dahy-uh-ree-sis]
    -The increased formation of urine by the kidney
  39. antidiuretic hormone
    -Also known as arginine vasopressin, a human hormone that is mainly released when the body is low on water.

    -Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes the kidneys to conserve water by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume.

    -It also has various functions in the brain and blood vessels.

    -ADH is a 9-amino acid peptide that is produced by specialized nerve cells in the hypothalamus and transported in the bloodstream to the posterior pituitary gland.

    -Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): A relatively small (peptide) molecule that is released by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain after being made nearby (in the hypothalamus).

    -ADH has an antidiuretic action that prevents the production of dilute urine (and so is antidiuretic).

    -ADH also can stimulate contraction of arteries and capillaries. ADH is also known as vasopressin.
  40. urinary incontinence (UI)
    -is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting.

    -(UI) is any involuntary leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a profound impact on quality of life.
  41. urinary retention
    -is the inability to empty the bladder.

    -also known as ischuria, is a lack of ability to urinate. It is a common complication of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
  42. dysuria
    -Painful or difficult urination due to bacterial infection.
  43. anuria
    -complete suppression of urine formation and excretion.

    -means nonpassage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 50 milliliters of urine in a day.
  44. hematuria

    he-ma-tu-ri-a [hee-muh-too r-ee-uh]
    -or haematuria, is the presence of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the urine.

    -It may be idiopathic and/or benign, or it can be a sign that there is a kidney stone or a tumor in the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, prostate, and urethra), ranging from trivial to lethal.

    -If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection.
  45. glycosuria
    -is a condition in which glucose or simple sugar is detected in the urine despite of normal blood sugar level.
  46. polyuria
    • -excessive secretion of urine.
    • -defined as a urine output exceeding 3 L/day in adults and 2 L/m2 in children.
  47. glomerulonephritis

    -Inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney.

    Symptoms: Albuminuria, edema, hypertension.
  48. interstitial nephritis

    in-ter-sti-tial [in-ter-stish-uh l]
    -Inflammation of the connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules.
  49. nephrolithiasis
    -Kidney stones (renal calculi)
  50. nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis)
    -Group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine.

    Symptoms: edema, hypoalbuminemia
  51. polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
    -Multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidneys.
  52. pyelonephritis

    py-e-lo-ne-phri-tis [pahy-uh-loh-nuh-frahy-tis]
    -Inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma.
  53. renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma)
    -Cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood.
  54. renal failure
    -Kidney decreases excretion of wastes as a result of impaired filtration function.
  55. renal hypertension
    -High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease.
  56. Wilms tumor
    -Malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood.
  57. bladder cancer
    -Malignant tumor of the urinary bladder.
  58. diabetes insipidus
    -Antidiuretic hormone is not secreted adequately, or the kidney is resistant to its effect.
  59. diabetes mellitus
    -Insulin is not secreted adequately or not used properly in the body.
  60. blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
    -Measurement of urea levels in blood.
  61. creatinine clearance

    cre-at-i-nine [kree-at-n-een]
    -Measurement of the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
  62. CT scan
    -X-ray images show multiple cross-sectional and other views of organs and tissues.
  63. kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB)
    -X-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
  64. renal angiography

    an-gi-og-ra-phy [an-jee-og-ruh-fee]
    -X-ray examination (with contrast) of the blood vessels of the kidney.
  65. retrograde pyelogram (RP)
    -X-ray imaging of the renal pelvis and ureters after injection of contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters from the bladder.
  66. voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
    -X-ray record (with contrast) of the urinary bladder and urethra obtained while the patient is voiding.
  67. ultrasonography
    -Imaging of urinary tract structures using high-frequency sound waves.
  68. radioisotope scan

    ra-di-o-i-so-tope [rey-dee-oh-ahy-suh-tohp]
    -Images of the kidney after injecting a radioactive substance (radioisotope) into the bloodstream.
  69. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    -Changing magnetic field produces images of the kidney and surrounding structures in three planes of the body.
  70. cystoscopy

    cys-tos-co-py [si-stos-kuh-pee]
    -Direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope).
  71. dialysis
    -Process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the blood.

    • Two methods:
    • 1. Hemodialysis (HD)
    • 2. Peritoneal dialysis (PD)
  72. lithotripsy
    -Urinary tract stones are crushed.
  73. renal angioplasty
    -Dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries.
  74. renal biopsy
    -Removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination.
  75. renal transplantation
    -Surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient.
  76. urinary catheterization
    -Passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder.
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