1. What are the 7 things that affect our food choices?
    • 1. taste & enjoyment
    • 2. culture & environment
    • 3. social reasons & trends
    • 4. weight, body image, health benefits
    • 5. advertising
    • 6. time, convience, cost
    • 7. habits/emotions
  2. Name the 6 nutrients...
    • carbohyrdates
    • proteins
    • minerals
    • fat
    • vitamins
    • water
  3. Which nutrients are energy yeilding and what are their caloric values?
    • carbohydrates - 4 kcals
    • fats (lipids) - 4 kcals
    • proteins - 9 kcals
    • alcohol (not a nutrient) - 7 kcals
  4. What are essential nutrients?
    • must be consumed by food
    • cannot be made in sufficient amounts to meet the body's needs
  5. What are non-nutrients?
    • phytochemicals
    • nondigestible fiber
    • chemicals added by manufactures to: enhance color, flavor, add texture, extend shelf life
  6. What are macronutrients?
    • body needs them in large amounts
    • include energy (carbs, lipids, proteins, water)
  7. What are micronutrients?
    • body needs in smaller amounts
    • vitamins & minerals - no energy
  8. In nutritional research what are the types of studies?
    • laboratory experiment
    • observational/experimental
    • epidemiological research
    • double-blind placebo-controlled study
  9. What are placebos?
    inactive substance, sugar pill, given to a control group during an experiment
  10. What is a control?
    A group that does not receive a treatment and given the placebo
  11. What is the double-blind placebo control?
    experimental study where no one knows who is receiving the treatment or placebo
  12. How do you find good quality information for a nutrition research?
    conduct a consensus
  13. What does a nutritional assessment include?
    examining a patient's health and diet history
  14. What are national survey's used for?
    to assess the health and nutritional status of Americans
  15. What is the major factor that is associated with chronic illness and the relationship to the food we eat, our activity level, and other lifestyle habits?
  16. What are the 5 principles of healthy eating?
    • adequacy
    • balance
    • calorie control
    • moderation
    • variety
  17. What is nutrient density?
    • measurement of nutrients in food compared with kilocalorie content
    • these foods are high in nutrients (vitamins) and low in kilocalories (energy)
  18. What is energy density?
    measurement of kilocalories in food compared with weight of the food
  19. What is DRI stand for?
    Dietary reference intake
  20. How are the requirements set for RDA (recommended dietary allowance)?
    • each nutrient should meet needs of 97-98% of individuals in gender and age groups
    • higher than EARS
    • not avail. for all nutrients
  21. How are requirements set for EAR (estimated average requirements)?
    • meet needs of 50% of Americans by age and gender
    • if individual is at risk of a deficiency
    • calculates RDAs
  22. How are the requirements set for AIs (adequate intakes)?
    • estimate based on jugdement of the FNB members
    • next best scientific estimate of amt of nutrients
  23. How are requirements set for ULs (tolerable upper intake level)?
    highest amt of nutrients that's unlikely to cause harm if consumed daily
  24. How are requirements set for AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges)?
    • ensure intake of nutrients is adequate and proportionate to physiological needs...
    • carbs 45-65% of daily kcals
    • fats 20-35% of daily kcals
    • proteins 10-35% of daily kcals
  25. How are the recommendations listed for RDAs, EARs, AIs, ULs and AMDR related and how are they used to evaluate intake?
    help individuals determine daily nutrient needs to maintain good health, prevent chronic diseases, and avoid unhealthy excesses
  26. What are the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
    nutritional goals for Americans established by scientists
  27. What is the Food Guide Pyramid?
    graphics used to summarized guidelines of healthy eating
  28. What are the 2005 Dietary Guidelines?
    • designed to help individuals over age 2:
    • improve quality of diet
    • lower the risk of chronic disease and unhealthy conditions
  29. What are the 9 categories in the 2005 dietary guidelines?
    • adequate nutrients withing calorie needs
    • weight management
    • physical activity
    • food groups to encourage
    • fats
    • carbohydrates
    • sodium and potassium
    • alcoholic beverages
    • food safety
Card Set
Exam 1