Connective Tissue S1M1

  1. Primary functions of Connective Tissue are:
    • Structural support
    • Medium for exchange
    • Defense and protection
  2. Loose connective tissue has what type of cells in it
    Fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, leukocytes and adipose cells
  3. Loose C.T. has what three features
    • Has a loose arrangement of fibers
    • Has ground substance (diffusion of gases, nutrients and waste products)
    • Abundance of cells Image Upload 1
  4. Loose connective tissue is the initial site of
    Inflammation and allergic (immune) responses
  5. Loose C.T. is found
    Beneath epithelia, it surrounds the blood vessels and nerves, and helps to hold organs in place
  6. Dense Connective Tissue contains lots of what, and few
    Fibers but few cells and capillariesImage Upload 2
  7. Dermis of skin, and submucosa of intestines are made up of mostly
    Dense irregular C. T.
  8. Dense irregular C. T fibers are arranged how, why
    In bundles and are oriented in various directions, it gives it strength
  9. Tendons, aponeuroses and ligaments are the main types of what tissue
    Dense regular connective tissue
  10. Dense Regular C.T is composed of
    Densely packed collagen bundles and oriented into parallel arrays of fibers and cells

    Image Upload 3
  11. Tendons are composed of
    Parallel bundles of coll 1 fibers and rows of fibroblasts called tendinocytes (Dense C.T.)
  12. Elastic ligaments contain many
    • Elastic fibers and fewer collagen fibers.
    • e.g. ligamenta flava
  13. Ligaments join
    Bone to bone
  14. Aponeuroses fibers (dense connective tissue) are arranged
    • In multiple layers.
    • Parallal rows arranged at 90 degree angles to the adjacent layer
  15. The cornea contains what type of connective tissue
    Aponeuroses (dense C.T.)
  16. Connective Tissue fibers are produced by
    Fibroblast cells
  17. Connective tissue fibers are composed of what three types
    • 1. Collagen fibers (most abundant)
    • 2. Reticular fibers
    • 3. Elastic fibers
  18. Connective tissue fibers are stained how
    Stain with eosin and other acidic dyes, aniline blue or light green dye

    Image Upload 4
  19. Collagen fibers are made up of
  20. Fibrils are composed of
    Tropocollagen moleculesImage Upload 5Image Upload 6
  21. Collagen types and tissues derived from them
    • Type I – loose and dense C.T., bone, dentine
    • Type II – cartilage
    • Type III – reticular fibers
    • Type IV – basal lamina
    • Type V - cells surfaces
  22. Reticular Fibers are collagen type
    • III and produced by fibroblast cells
    • Do not form bundles but will form fibrils and fibersImage Upload 7
  23. Reticular fibers are arranged how and have what function
    • Arranged in a mesh-like network
    • Provide support for tissues and organs
  24. Reticular fibers are found where
    Around nerves, small blood vessels, muscle cells, red bone marrow and lymphatic tissues but not thymus.

    Also found in endocrine organs and liver
  25. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is noted for
    Is lack of reticular fibers (Coll 3). Hyperelasticity of the skin and hypermobility of joints, ruptures in large arteries and intestines are common Image Upload 8
  26. Elastic Fibers are composed of
    Elastin core and a sheath of fibrillin microfibrilsImage Upload 9
  27. Elastic fibers are made by
    Fibroblasts, chondroblast, chondrocyte and smooth muscle cells
  28. During the formation of elastic fibers Fibrillin acts as
    The organizer center. It forms first, and elastin materials are deposited on surface of microfibrils to form elastic fibers.Image Upload 10
  29. Lack of microfibrils results in
    Formation of elastin sheets or lamellae e.g. aorta
  30. Elastic chains are held together by
    Covalent bonds Image Upload 11
  31. Cross linking of elastin by desmosine and isodesmosine may account for
    • The rubber like qualities of this protein which is about 5 times more extensible than rubber.
    • Image Upload 12
  32. Marfan syndrome results from
    • Image Upload 13
    • A mutation of fibrillin gene
    • Lack of resistance in tissues rich in elastic fibers. Aortic or arterial rupture (High BP)
  33. Fibrillin microfilaments exposed to sun can cause
    Solar radiation resulting in decreased skin elasticity and appearance of deep wrinkles of photoaged skin
  34. Ground Substance is composed of
    • GLY's
    • Glycosaminoglycans (GAG), proteoglycans
    • adhesive glycoproteins
  35. Ground substance has what function
    Acts as both a lubricant and a barrier to microorganisms
  36. The high (-) charge allows GAGs (glycosaminoglycans) to be stained with
    Basic dyes
  37. Proteoglycans have a structure made how
    • A core of protein and many GAG molecules. They can act as binding sites for growth factors and other signaling molecules.
    • Image Upload 14
  38. Transmembrane proteoglycans such syndecan links cells to
    Extracellular matrix molecules
  39. Proteoglycan aggregates are abundant in
    • Ground substance of cartilage.
    • Cartilage resist compression thus acting as shock absorbers.
  40. Multiadhesive Glycoproteins have what function
    Stabilize the extracellular matrix by binding to cell surface, collagen, proteoglycans, and GAGs
  41. Staphylococcus aureus secrete hyaluronidase, which is an enzyme that
    Chops hyaluronic acid into smaller pieces thus converting the gel state into a sol state in the extracellular matrix (ground substance). This results in a breakdown of the ground substance and causes the rapid spread of the microrganism thru the connective tissue spaces
  42. Connective tissue cells are grouped how
    Fixed (FAMM) – fibroblast, adipose cells, macrophage, mast

    Transient – lymphocytes, plasma, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and macrophages
  43. Principal cell type of C.T. arise from Mesenchyme cells and are called
    Fibroblast Cell
  44. What is the function of fibroblasts
    Synthesis of collagen, reticular & elastic fibers and all ground substance
  45. What is the structure of fibroblast cells
    Spindle shaped cell with tapering extensionsImage Upload 15
  46. What are the two types of fibroblast cells
    • Active fibroblast
    • Fibrocyte Image Upload 16
  47. Fibrocyte is shaped how
    Smaller spindle shaped with less processes & less RER
  48. Active fibroblasts are shaped how
    Irregularly branched and has an abundant cytoplasm
  49. Myofibroblast
    • Fibroblasts having features of both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells.
    • Important for wound healing
  50. Macrophages can survive how long
  51. Macrophage are derived from
    Monocytes of blood and they migrate from blood vessels by diapedesis (escape the blood vessel) into C.T.
  52. Macrophages can fuse to form multinuclear giant cells that can
    Phagocytose large foreign bodies
  53. Structure of Macrophage
    • Nucleus is oval or kidney shaped and eccentric
    • Well dev. Golgi, lots of RER and lysosomes
    • Many microfilaments and microtubules for locomotion and phagocytosisImage Upload 17
  54. The function of macrophages is
    • Phagocytosis and pinocytosis
    • Presents antigens to lymphocytes (APCs)
  55. Plasma Cells function is, and they live for how long
    • Production of antibodies
    • Lifespan – 10-30 days
  56. Plasma cells are derived from
    B – lymphoctes
  57. Structure of a plasma cell
    • Large ovoid cell extensive RER, and well dev . Golgi
    • Nucleus is large and spherical, alternating patches of heterochromatin and euchromatinImage Upload 18
  58. Mast Cell are derived from
    Bone marrow
  59. Structure of a mast cell
    • Nucleus – small and spherical, centrally located
    • Cytoplasm has large membrane bound granules Image Upload 19
  60. Histamine does what
    Dilates and increases permeability in postcapillary venules and increase mucus and contraction of smooth muscle in bronchioles causing bronchiospasm
  61. Mast cells release what different immune response agents
    • (HHELP)
    • 1. Heparin
    • 2. Histamine
    • 3. Eosinophil and Neutrophil chemotactic factors
    • 4. Leukotrienes
    • 5. Prostaglandins
  62. Prostaglandins increase
    • "ProstaGLANDins"
    • Mucus secretion
  63. Leukotrienes increase
    Permeability and smooth muscle contraction.
  64. Mesenchyme Cells charecteristics
    • Have multi potential capability
    • Are stellate in shape
    • Are found in close association to small vessels Image Upload 20
  65. During blood vessel formation or repair, mesenchyme (pericytes) cells may
    Differentiate into smooth muscle cells as well as Endothelial cells.
  66. Adipose cells arise from
    Embryonic mesenchyme cellsImage Upload 21
  67. The Two types of adipose tissue are
    Brown (multilocular) tissue – in fetal life and newborn . Diminishes during 1st 10 yrs. Nucleus is centrally located

    White (unilocular) tissue - is predominant type in adultsImage Upload 22
  68. Function of White adipose
    • Energy reserves
    • Insulation
    • Padding of vital organs
    • Cells have receptors for insulin, GH
    • Uptake and release of fatty acids and triglycerides
  69. Many organs are surrounded by
    Connective tissue
  70. Connective tissue arises from
  71. What five classes of immunoglobulins does the plasma cell produce
    IgG, IgE, IgA, IgM, IgD (GAME Day)
  72. IgE production by plasma cells binds to IgE receptors on
    Mast cells
  73. After an initial exposure of the plasma cells to an antigen, on the 2nd exposure to same antigen the reaction occurs
    By an antibody reaction occuring at the mast cells surface
  74. Microbacteria is killed by
  75. Do adipose cells have a membrane around the fat droplets
    Absolutely not
Card Set
Connective Tissue S1M1
Cell Biology