Bio-37 Vocab

  1. *List the structures of the circulatory system.
    *The human circulatory system consists of the heart, a series of blood vessels, and the blood that flows through them.
  2. myocardium
    two thin layers of epithelial and connective tissue that fomr a sandwhich around the a thick layer of muscle called the myocardium
  3. artium
    the upper chamber of the heart that receives blood
  4. ventricles
    lower chamber that pumps blood out of the heart
  5. pulmonary circulation
    the right side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
  6. systemic circulation
    from the left artium of the heart, blood is pumped into the left ventricle and from there to the body tissues
  7. valves
    flaps of connective tissue between the atria and the ventricles. blood moving from the atria holds the valves open. when the ventricles contract, the valves close, which prevents blood from flowing into the atria
  8. pacemaker
    A specialized region of the right atrium of the mammalian heart that sets the rate of contraction; also called the sinoatrial (SA) node.
  9. aorta
    the first of a series of blood vessels that carries the blood on its round trip through the body and back to the heart
  10. *Name the three types of blood vessels in the circulatory system.
    *As blood flows through the circulatory system, it moves through 3 types of blood vessels- arteries, capillaries, and veins.
  11. arteries
    large vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues of the body
  12. capillaries
    smallest of the blood vessels. they bring nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbing carbon dioxide and other waste products
  13. veins
    returns blood that has passed through the capillary system back to the heart
  14. atherosclerosis
    a condition in which fatty deposits calld plaque build up on the inner wall of the arteries
  15. plasma
    straw colored fluid that consists of 90% water and 10% dissolved gases, salts, enzymes, hormones, waste products, and proteins called plasma proteins
  16. plasma proteins
    albumins, globulins, fibrinogen
  17. albumins
    transport substances such as fatty acids, hormones, and vitamins. regulate osmotic pressure and blood volume
  18. globulins
    transport substances such as fatty acids, hormones, and vitamins. some fight viral and bacterial infections
  19. fibrinogen
    protein responsible for the ability of blood to clot
  20. *List the main function of red blood cells.
    *Red blood cells transport oxygen.
  21. hemoglobin
    iron-containing protein that binds to oxygen in the lungs and transports it to tissues throughout the body. also where red blood cells get their color
  22. *List the main function of white blood cells.
    *White blood cells are the "army" of the circulatory system- they guard against infection, fight parasites, and attack bacteria.
  23. lymphocytes
    white blood cells that are involved in the immune response. B lymphocytes produce antibodies which are essential for fighting infection and help to produce immunity to many diseases. T lymphocytes help fight tumors and viruses
  24. *List the main function of platelets.
    *Blood clotting is made possible by plasma proteins and cell fragments called platelets.
  25. platelet
    plasma proteins and cell fragments that make blood clotting possible
  26. *Describe the role of the lymphatic system.
    *A network of vessels, nodes, and organs called the lymphatic system collects the fluid that is lost by the blood and returns it back to the circulatory system.
  27. lymph
    fluid that escapes from the circulatory system
  28. CPR
    cardiopylmonary resuscitation
  29. *Interpret the function of the respiratory system by stating what it does.
    *The basic function performed by the human respiratory system is remarkably simple- to bring about the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, the air, and tissues.
  30. pharynx
    a passageway for both air and food
  31. trachea
    air moves from pharynx to trachea, or windpipe. the epiglottis, a flap of tissue, covers the entrance to the trachea when you swallow
  32. larynx
    located at the top of the trachea. containse two highly elastic folds of tissue known as the vocal cords
  33. bronchi (singular: bronchus)
    two large passageways in the chest cavity that leads one into each lung. it subdivides into smaller bronchi and then to bronchioles
  34. alveoli (singular: alveolus)
    series of dead endys tat are grouped into little clusters. capillaries surround each alveolus
  35. diaphragm
    large, flat muscle that inflates the lungs. the lungs are sealed in two sacs called the pleural membranes inside the chest cavity. at the bottom of the cavity is the diaphragm
  36. nicotine
    stimulant drug that increases heart rate and blood pressure
  37. carbon monoxide
    poisonous gas that blocks the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin in the blood. it decreases the blood's ability to supply oxygen to its tissues, depriving the heart and other organs of the oxygen they need to function
  38. tar
    contains compounds that cause cancer
  39. *Describe some of the health problems caused by smoking tobaco.
    *Smoking can cause such respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer.
  40. emphysema
    the loss of elasticity in the tissues of the lungs
Card Set
Bio-37 Vocab