Phil Exam 1

  1. Define Philosophy
    The love of wisdom. The activity of critically and carefully examining the reasons begind our most fundamental assumptions
  2. Define Epistemology
    the branch of philosophy that investigates the nature, sources, limitations, and validity of knowledge
  3. who is Thales?
    • “Everything ultimately is made of water”
    • 1. Although reality is complex it should be explainable in terms of one or a few basic elements.
    • 2. Reality should be explainable in natural, observable objects (not just chalking it up to the gods).
    • 3. Religious beliefs from the past that can neither be proved or disproved should not be our explanation for things.
  4. *Brahman / **Atman
    *the Upanishads called reality Brahman- cannot be seen, smelled, felt or heard. cannot be imagined.

    **the deepest self

    You are the ultimate reality behind the universe.
  5. Plato
    follower of Socrates. wrote down the cave. Dialogues.
  6. Define Metaphysics
    the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of reality
  7. Who is Heraclitus?
    “Reality is change” rivers, flames, etc.
  8. Upanishads
    • Indian philosophers created terms Brahman and Atman.
    • taught us that the way to discover the ultimate reality of the universe is to look within ourselves
  9. Define Ethics
    The branch of philosophy that tries to determine the good and right thing to do
  10. Who was Parmenides?
    “change is an illusion”
  11. Parable of the Cave
    Prisoners can’t see the light. Only the shadows by the fire on the back walls. Reality consists only of shadows – like watching TV to show you how things really are. A lot of opinions aren’t yours. They have been picked up and taught. Go outside in the light. Get used to shadows, moon, then sun. Then get dragged back down in the cave. etc
  12. Socrates
    • "The unexamined life is not worth living"
    • Father of philosophy. Platos teacher. considered the wisest of men bc he had no pretense about his wisdom.
  13. Who was Zeno?
    “Change is an illusion” movement is an illusion of our senses. Bc to get from one point to another, you must hit a halfway point, etc, etc. infinite number of spaces and therefore we cannot move
  14. In the Myth of the Cave, Plato describes
    a group of people existing in ignorance at the bottom of the cave
  15. For Plato, the process whereby an individual leaves his or her state of ignorance will occur by
    being dragged out reluctantly and forced into the light of reality
  16. The Socratic method primarily focuses upon
  17. For Socrates, the greatest thing a person can do is
    question oneself and others to discover what makes us good
  18. According to the Myth of the Cave, the process of getting out of the cave is:
    disoienting, painful, frightening, gradual
  19. Socrates was condemned to death for
    impiety and corrupting the youth
  20. While the Oracle at Delphi claimed Socrates was the wisest of men, Socrates came to accept this as true b/c he
    knew, he didn't know
  21. Philosophy consists of all of the following except:

    A. thinking
    B. reasoning
    C. facts
    D. arguing
  22. The primary value of philosophy is
  23. T or F:
    The female Greek philosopher, Perictione, wrote that while other subjects study a particular aspect of the world, philosophy is concerned with all that exists.
  24. T or F:
    The Republic shows Socrates at his trial, defending his life-long commitment to philosophy.
  25. T or F:
    Socrates asks Euthyphro to ID the characteristic that makes all beautiful things beautiful.
  26. T or F:
    in The Apology Socrates argues that the unexamined life is not worth living.
  27. T or F:
    In Crito, Socrates argues that we should obey the laws of society b/c they are established by God
  28. Human Nature
    what constitutes something as a human being; what makes us different from anything else; the collection of qualities that make us human
  29. Psychological Egoism
    The view that human beings are so constituted that the must always act out of self-interest

    Frued - Humans are selfish and agressive

    Hobbes - humans act to seek satisfactrion of their own mechanistic desires
  30. self/soul
    self- the ego or "I" that exists in a physical body and that is conscious and rational

    • soul - an immaterial entitu that is identified with consciousness, mind, or personality
    • according to Plato, soul consists of:
    • 1.Rational
    • 2.Emotional/Spirited
    • 3.Basic appetites
  31. Traditional Rational View
    [Plato, Aristotle]
    • Reason is what sets humans aside from animals
    • Aristotles' view - everything has its own unique purpose.
  32. Western Religious View
    [Augustine, Aquinas]
    • -choosing good or evil-
    • Humans are constantly attracted to evil (away from God) people sin because they can.

    Aquinas said humans should use their reason to know God - that is our purpose
  33. Darwin
    • 1. vatiantions: animals and plants are sometimes born wtih features that are different from those of their parents but that they can pass on to their own offspring
    • 2. struggle for existence: Because animals produce more offspring than can survive, they are continuously caught in a great struggle
  34. Existentialism
    • humans are whatever they make themselves
    • [there are no true, universal statements about what humans are; we are free]
  35. Feminism
    Reason is considered more of a masculine trait. Aristotle started this belief (he also supported slavery to a degree)
  36. The traditional study of human nature has been as attempt to
    discover if there is anything distinct and significant about humans
  37. According to the traditional Greek view, the soul was
    composed of 3 parts: aggression, appetite, and reason
  38. Plato compared the parts of the soul to
    a chariot with a chrioteer and 2 horses
  39. According to Aristotle, reality is permeated with
  40. For the Greeks, the essence of human nature was
  41. According to the Judaic-Christian-Islamic view of human nature, humans are
    created in the image of God
  42. The Judaic-Christian-Islamic view of human nature differed from the traditional Greek view in that it emphasized our
    capacity for choice
  43. According to the traditional Christian view, as espoused by Aquinas, it is an essential aspect of human nature to
    want to know God
  44. The theory of natural selection claims that
    there is a difference in degree between humans and all other creatures
  45. By the 20th century the view that there is something significant and distinct about humans
    is viewed with skepticism
  46. For existentialists
    humans are self-defining creatures
  47. T or F:
    Plato believed the self consisted of reason, appetite, and desire.
  48. T or F:
    Saint Augustine borrowed Plato's view that humans have an immaterial and immortal soul.
  49. T or F:
    According to Darwin, humans are the products of a purposeful plan
  50. T or F:
    Darwin wrote: "Existence precedes essence."
  51. T or F:
    According to the existentialist view, humans create their own nature.
Card Set
Phil Exam 1
Intro to Philosophy Exam 1 - TCC