Psych 333

  1. Psychological Tradition
    rise of moral therapy

    more human= treatment of institutionalized patients

    encouraged and reinforced social interaction
  2. Biological Tradition
    • hippocrates: abnormal behavior as a physical disease
    • hysteria = “the wandering uterus”
    • galen extends hippocrates’ work
    • humoral = theory of mental illness—certain fluids in the body, if out of balance it threw off the body’s proper function
    • treatments remained crude
  3. Supernatural tradition
    • deviant behavior as a battle of “good” vs evil
    • caused by demonic possession, witchcraft, sorcery

    treatments included exorcism, torture, beatings, and crude surgeries

    • the moon and the stars
    • paracelsus and lunacy
  4. abnormal behavior
    Actions that are unexpected and often evaluated negatively because they differ from typical or usual behavior
  5. behavior therapy
    Array of therapeutic methods based on the principles of behavirosal and cognitive science, as well as principles of learing as applied to clinical problems. It considers specific behaviors rather than inferred conflicts as legitimate targets for change
  6. behavioral model
    explanationof human behavir, including dysfunctio, badsded on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology
  7. behaviorism
    explaination of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaption derived from experimental psychology
  8. castration anxiety
    The fear in young boys that they will be mutilated gewnitally because of their lust for their mothers
  9. catharsis
    rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy
  10. classical conditioning
    fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response is paried with another stimulus event that does not. After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desired response
  11. clinical description
    details of the combination of behaviors, thoughs and feelings of an indiidual that make up a particular disorder
  12. collective unconscious
    accumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered across generations, a psychodynamic concept introduced by Carl Jung.
  13. course
    pattern of development and change of a disorder over time
  14. defense mechanism
    common pattern of behavior, often an adaptive coping style when it occurs in moderation, observed in response to a particular situation.

    Unconsious processing originating in the ego
  15. dream analysis
    psychoanalytic therapy method in which dream content is examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychotic conflicts
  16. ego
    the psychotic entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy the id
  17. ego psychology
    psychoanalytic theory that empthazises the tole of the ego in development and attibutes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage impulses and interal conflicts
  18. etiology
    cause or source of a disorder
  19. exorcism
    religious ritual that attributes disordered behavior to possession by demons and seeks to treat the indivusual by driving the demons from the body
  20. extinction
    learning process in which response maintained by reinforcement in iperant conditiond or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when the reinforement of pairing is removed aslso the produre of removing that reinforcement or pairing
  21. free association
    psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patiend is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring
  22. id
    pleasure principle, illogical, emotional, irrational
  23. incidence
    number of new cases of disorder appearing during a specific time period
  24. intrapsychic conflicts
    struggle among id, ego, and superego
  25. introspection
    early, nonscientific approac to the study of psychology incolving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoked
  26. mental hygiene movement
    effort to improve care of the mentally disorderedby informing the public of their mistreatment
  27. moral therapy
    involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments
  28. neurosis
    obsolete psychodynamic term for a disorder thought to result from an unconsious conflict and anxiety it causes
  29. object relation
    modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children incorporate the memories and valies of people who are close and important to them
  30. person-centered therapy
    method in which the client, rather than the counselor, promarily directs the course of disscussion, seeking self discovery and self-responsibility
  31. phobia
    disorder characterized by marked and persistant fear of an object or situation
  32. presenting problem
    original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. The actual treated problem may be modification derived from the presenting problem
  33. prevalence
    number of people displaying a disorder in the total pop. at any given time
  34. prognosis
    predicted development of a disorder over time
  35. psychoanalysis
    assesment and therapy pioneered by freud that emphasized exploration of and the insight into unconscious processed and conflicts
  36. psychoanalyst
    therapist who practices psychoanalysis after earning a PHD and recieving assitional specialised postdoctoral training
  37. psychosexual stages of development
  38. psychoanalytic model
    comples and comprehensice theory originally advanced by frued that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality as well as the orgin of abnormal behavior, based primarily on inferred innerentities and forces
  39. psychodynamic psychotherapy
    contemporary version of psychoanalysis athat still emphasizes unconcious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems
  40. psychological disorder
    psychological disfuntion associated with distress or ompairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response
  41. psychopathology
    scientific study of psychological disorders
  42. psychosocial approach
    treatment practice that focuses on social and cultural factors as well as psychological influences
  43. reinforcement
    consequences for behavior that strengthen it or increase its frequency
  44. scientist-practitioner
    mental health professional expected to apply scientific methods ro his or her work. A scientist-practitioner must know that latest reaserch on diagnosis and treatment
  45. self-actualizing
    process emphasized in humanistic pshycology in which people strive to achienve the highest potential against difficult life experiences
  46. shaping
    the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that repsonse. Bothe desirable and undesirable behaviors may be learned this way
  47. superego
    entity representing the internalized moral standards of parents and society
  48. systematic desensitization
    behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usuall relaxation
  49. transference
    psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents
  50. unconditional positive regard
    acceptance by the counselor of the clients feelings and actions without judgement or condemnation
  51. unconscious
    part of psychic makeup that is outsie th awareness of the person
  52. affect
    concious subjective aspect of an emotionthat accompanies and action at a given time
  53. agonist
    a chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmistter by imitatiing its effects
  54. antagonist
    a chemical substance that decreases or blocks the efects of a neurotransmitter
  55. brain circuit
    neurotransmitter current or neural pathway in the brain
  56. cognitive science
    field of study that examines how humans and other animals aquire, process, store, and retrieve info
  57. diathesis–stress model
    hypothesis that both an inherited tendaency and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder
  58. dopamine
    neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory and pleasure seeking behaviors
  59. emotion
    pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiology response
  60. equifinality
    principle that a behavior or disorder may have many causes
  61. flight or fight response
    brain circuit in animals that when stimulated causes an immediate alarm-and-escape response resembling human panic
  62. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synaptic cleft and this inhibits a range of behaviors and emotions expecially generalized anxiety
  63. gene
    long DNA, the basic physical unit of heredidy that appears as a location on a chromosome
  64. glutamate
    amino acid neurotransmitter that excites many different neurons by which alch affects cognitive abilities
  65. hormone
    chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands
  66. implicit memory
    condition od memory in which a person cannot recall past events despite acting in response to them
  67. inverse agonist
    a chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular neurotransmitter
  68. learned helplessness
    theory that people become anxious and depresses when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress
  69. modeling
    learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and consequenses of that behavior
  70. mood
    induring period of emotionality
  71. multidimensional integrative approach
    approach to the study of psychopathology that holds psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors
  72. neuron
    individual nerve cell responsible for transmitting info
  73. neuroscience
    study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions
  74. neurotransmitter
    chemical that crosses the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next
  75. norepinephrine
    neurotransmitter active in the central and periferal nervous systems, controlling heart rate, bp, and respiration among other functions
  76. prepared learning
    ability adaptive for evolution, allowing certain associations to be learned more readily than others
  77. reciprocal gene–environment model
    a hypothesis that people with a genetic predispostion for disorder may also have a genetic tendancy to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder
  78. reuptake
    actions my which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn bac into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft
  79. serotonin
    processing of info and cordination of movement as well as inhibition and restraint. Assits in regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors
  80. synaptic cleft
    space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next
  81. vulnerability
    suspetibility or tendancy to develop a disorder
  82. analog model
    approach to research that employs subjects who are similar to clinical clients, allowing replication of a clinical problem under controlled conditions
  83. association study
    research strategy for comparing genetic markers in groups of people with and without a perticular disorder
  84. baseline
    measured rate of a behavior before infroduction of an intervention that allows comparison and assesment of the effects of the intervention
  85. behavioral assessment
    measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating the clients thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the actual problem situation or context
  86. case study method
    research procedure in which a single person or small group is studied in detail. No cause and effect
  87. classical categorical approach
    classification method founded on the assumption of clear cut differences among disorders, each with a different known cause
  88. classification
    assignment of objects or people to categories on the basis of shared characteristics
  89. clinical assessment
    systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder
  90. clinical significance
    degree to which research findings have useful and meaningful applications to real problems
  91. cohort
    participants in each age group of a study with a cross-sectional design
  92. cohort effect
    obervation that people of diff age groups differ in their values and experiences
  93. comorbidity
    presense of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time
  94. comparative treatment research
    outcome research that contrasts two or more treatment methods to determine which is most effective
  95. confound
    any factor occuring in a study that makes the results uninterpretable because its effects cannot be seperated from those of the variables being studied
  96. confounding variable
    variable in a research study that was not part of the indended design and that may contribute to changes in the dependant variable
  97. control group
    groups similar to the experimental subjects in every way but are not exposed to the treatment recieved my the subjects
  98. correlation
    degree to which to variables are associated
  99. correlation coefficient
    computed statistic reflecting the strength and direction of an association between two variables
  100. correlational study
    research procedure which variables are measured and compared to detect any association but are not manipulated
  101. cross-generational effect
    limit to the generalizeability of longitudinal research because the group understudy may differ from others in culture and experience
  102. cross-sectional design
    methodology to examine a characteristic by comparing individuals of different ages
  103. dependent variable
    the phenomonom that is measured and expected to be influenced
  104. diagnosis
    process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific disorder
  105. dimensional approach
    method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum reather than ona blinary, either-or, or all-or-none basis
  106. directionality
    posibility that when two variables, A and B are correlated variable A causes variable B or variable B causes variable A
  107. double-blind control
    practice of transmitting conflicting messages that was thought to cause schizophrenia
  108. electroencephalogram (EEG)
    measure of electrical activity patterns in the brain
  109. epidemiology
    psychopathology method which examines the prevalence, distribution, and consequenses of disorders in populations
  110. experiment
    establish causation by manipulating the variables in question and controlling for alternative explainations of any observed effect
  111. external validity
    extent to which research findings generalize or apply to people and settings not involved in the study
  112. false negative
    assesment error in which no pathology is noted when one is actually present
  113. false positive
    assesment error in which pathology is reported when none is present
  114. familial aggregation
    extent to which a disorder will be found among a patients relatives
  115. family study
    genetic study that examines patterns and traits and behaviors among relatives
  116. generalizability
    extent to which reaearch results apply to a range of indivuduals not included in the study
  117. genetic linkage anaylysis
    study that seeks to match the inheritance pattern of a disorder to that of a genetic marker
  118. genetic marker
    inherited characteristic for which the chromosomal location of the responsible gene is known
  119. genotype
    specific genetic make-up of an individual
  120. human genome project
    ongoing scientific event to develop a comprehensive map of all human genes
  121. hypothesis
    an educated guess or statement to be tested by research
  122. independent variable
    manipulated my the experimentor in a study and expecited to infulence the dependant variable
  123. informed consent
    content that was made from an individual
  124. internal validity
    extent to which the results of the studies can be attributed to the independnt variable after confounding alternative explanations have been ruled out
  125. labeling
    applying a name to phenomonon or pattern of behavior
  126. level
    degree of behavior change with different interventions
  127. longitudinal design
    systematic study of changes in the same individual or group examined over time
  128. mental status exam
    prelimonary test of a clients judgement orientation to time and place and emotional and mental state
  129. multiple baseline design
    measures are taken on two or more behaviors or on a single behavior in two or more situations
  130. negative correlation
    association between two variables in which one increases the other decreases
  131. neuroimaging
    sophisticated computer aided procedure that allowes non intrusive examination of nervous sytem structure and function
  132. neuropsychological testing
    assesment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an indviduals proformance on behavioral tasks
  133. nomenclature
    in a naming system, the actual labels or names that are applied
  134. nosology
    classification in naming system for medical and psychological phenomonon
  135. patient uniformity myth
    tendancy to consider all members of a category as more similar as they are ignoring their individual differences
  136. personality inventory
    self report questionare that assesses personal traits by asking respondants to identify discriptions that apply to themselves
  137. phenotype
    observable trait you can see
  138. placebo control group
    does not receive the experimental manipulation but is given a similar procedure with an identical expectation of change
  139. placebo effect
    behavior change resulting from a persons expectation of change rather than from the experimental manipulation itself
  140. positve correlation
    association between two variables in which one increases and the othe increases
  141. proband
    the individual displaying the trait or characteristic being studied
  142. projective test
    measure that presents ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses can reveal their unconcious conflicts
  143. prototypical approach
    system for categorizing disorders using both essential definding characteristics and a range of variation on other characteristics
  144. psychophysiological assesment
    measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting efents such as anxiety stress and sexual arousal
  145. randomization
    method of replacing individuals of research groups that assures that each has equal chance of being assigned to any group
  146. reliability
    degree to which a measurement in consistent
  147. repeated measurement
    when responses are measured on more than one occation to assess trends
  148. research design
    plan of experimentation used to test a hypothesis
  149. retrospective information
    data collected by examining records or recollections of the past
  150. sequential design
    combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal designs involving repeated study of different cohorts over time
  151. single-case experimental design
    research tactic in which an independent variable is manipulatied for a single individual, allowing cause and effect conclusions but with limited generalizability
  152. standardization
    establishing spacific norms and requirements for measurement technique to ensure that it is used consistently across measurement occations
  153. statistical significance
    small probablilty of obtaining the observed research findings by chance
  154. taxonomy
    system of naming and classification in science
  155. testability
    ability of a hypothesis to be subjected to scientific scruitiny and to be accepted or rejected
  156. trend
    direction of change of a behavior or behaviors
  157. twin study
    comparison of twins with unrelated or less closely related individuals
  158. validity
    degeree to which a technique measures what its supposed to mearsure
  159. variability
    degree of change in a phenomonon over time
  160. withdrawal design
    removing a treatment to note whether it has been effective
Card Set
Psych 333
Exam 1