1. Physical and Chemical Properties
    • Physical: chemical bonds are not broken can be observed
    • Chemical: can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance
  2. Intensive and Extensive Properties
    • Intensive: independent of the amount of the substance that is present. Ex: density, boiling pt, etc.
    • Extensive: depend upon the amount of the substance is present. Ex: mass, volume, energy, etc
  3. Physical and Chemical Changes
    • Physical: changes in matter that do ot change the compostition of a substance Ex: temp, volume, changes in states
    • Chemical: result in new substances E: combustion, oxidation, decomposition
  4. Distillation
    • D: uses differencs in the boiling points of substances to spearate a homogeneous mixture into its components
    • F: substances are separated from liquids and solutions
    • C: separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent
  5. SI Units of mass, length, time, temp., & amount of a substance
    • meters
    • s2
    • K
    • mole
  6. Fahrenheit to Celsius
    Celsius to Fahrenheit
    Celsius to Kelvin
    • 9/5(C)+32
    • 5/9(F-32)
    • C+ 273.15
  7. Accuracy and Precision
    • Accuracy: proximity of a measurement to the true value of a quantity
    • Precision: proximity of several measurements to each other
  8. Protons were discovered by...
    Neutrons were discovered by ...
    • Rutherford
    • james Chadwick
  9. On a periodic table, rows are called _____ and columns are callled ___.
    • periods
    • groups
  10. Periodic Table:
    1A; 2A; 6A; 7A; 8A
    • alkali metals
    • alkali earth metals
    • chalcogens
    • halogens
    • noble gases
  11. Name the seven diatomic molecules
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Flourine
    • Chlorine
    • Bromine
    • Iodine
  12. Three different reactions
    • Combination
    • Decomposition
    • Combustion
  13. Theoretical and Actual Yield
    • T: calculate
    • A: what actually comes out
  14. Electrolyte and Nonelectrolyte
    • E: dissociates into ions when dissolved in water
    • N: dissolves in water but do not dissociates into ions
  15. Seven strong Acids & formulas...the are also...?
    • Hydrochloric Acid: HCl
    • Hydrobromic Acid: HBr
    • Hydroiodic Acid: HI
    • Chloric Acid: HClO2
    • Perchloric: HClO4
    • Nitric Acid: HNO3
    • Sulfuric: H2SO4
  16. Strong Bases
    • Group 1A
    • Group 2A
  17. Strong Electrolytes are..
    • strong acids
    • strong bases
    • soluble ionic salts
  18. Soluble Ionic Compounds & Insoluble Compounds and important exceptions
    Image Upload 1
  19. Ionic Equation stuff
    all strongelectrolytes, atrog bases, ad soluble ionic salty are siddociated into their ions when determinity the net ionic equation
  20. Neutralization Reactions
    solutions of an acid and a base are combined an the products are asalt an water
  21. When a strong acid reacts with a strong base, what is the net ionic equation
    H and OH produces H2O
  22. when a carbonate or bicarbonate or sulfite reacts with an acid, what are the products?
    salt, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide, and water
  23. oxidation and reduction
    • leo
    • the lion says
    • ger
  24. Sign conventions for q, w, and delta E.
    • q is positive when system gains heat
    • q is negative when system loses heat
    • w is positive when work done on system
    • w is negative when work done by system
    • delta E positive when net gain of energy by system
    • delta E negative when net loss of energy by system
  25. Endothermic and Exothermic
    • heat absorbed by the system from the surroundings
    • heat released by the system into the surroundings
  26. which are state functions:
    internal energy, heat, work
  27. when enthalpy is positive..
    when enthalpy is negative..
    • endothermic
    • exothermic
  28. Planck's constant, h
    6.626 x 10-34 J-s
  29. Speed of light, c
    3.00 x 108
  30. Rydberg constant, RH
    2.18 x 10-18 J
  31. Quantum numbers:
    values of n
    values of l
    values of ml
    values of ms
    • n > or = 1
    • l are integer ranging for 0 to n-1
    • ml are integers ranging from -l to l
    • ms have only two values: +1/2 & -1/2
  32. Cations are ____ than their parent atoms.
    Anions are ____ than their parent atoms.
    • smaller
    • larger
  33. Sizes of Ions increase as....
    • you go down a column
    • you go from right to left on a period
  34. isoelectronic series
    ions have the same number of electrons
  35. ionization energy
    amount of energy required to remove an electron form the ground state of a gaseous atom or ion
  36. ionization energy increases as..
    • you go up a column
    • and left to right across a period
  37. electron affinity
    • opposite of ionization
    • energy change accompanying the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom
  38. in general electron affinity becomes more exothermic as ....
    you go from left to right across a row/perid
  39. metallic character increases as..
    you go from left to right across a row/period and down a column
  40. characteristics of metals
    • ductile and malleable
    • shiny...luster
    • good conductors of electricity
    • tend to form cations in aq solutions
    • most metal oxides are ionic solids that are basic
  41. characteristics of nonmetals
    • do not have luster; various colors
    • solids are usually brittle, some hard some soft
    • poor conductors of electricity
    • nonmetal oxides are molecular substances that form acidic solutions
    • tend to form anion or oxyanions in aq solutions
  42. three chemical bonds
    describe each
    • ionic (electrostatic attractions b/w ions)
    • covalent (sharing of electrons)
    • metalllic (metal atoms bonded to several other atoms)
  43. lattice energy
    energy required to completely separtae a mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions
  44. bond dipole
    when two atoms share elecrons unequally
  45. electronegativity
    th ability of atoms in a molecule to attract electons to themselves
  46. electronegativity increases as....
    • you go from left to right across a row
    • up a column
  47. sigma and pi bonds
    • sigma: cylindrical symmetry ofelectron density about the internuclear axis
    • pi: electron density above and below the internuclear axis
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