Physical and Chemical Properties
- Physical: chemical bonds are not broken can be observed
- Chemical: can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance
Intensive and Extensive Properties
- Intensive: independent of the amount of the substance that is present. Ex: density, boiling pt, etc.
- Extensive: depend upon the amount of the substance is present. Ex: mass, volume, energy, etc
Physical and Chemical Changes
- Physical: changes in matter that do ot change the compostition of a substance Ex: temp, volume, changes in states
- Chemical: result in new substances E: combustion, oxidation, decomposition
- D: uses differencs in the boiling points of substances to spearate a homogeneous mixture into its components
- F: substances are separated from liquids and solutions
- C: separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent
SI Units of mass, length, time, temp., & amount of a substance
Fahrenheit to Celsius
Celsius to Fahrenheit
Celsius to Kelvin
- C+ 273.15
Accuracy and Precision
- Accuracy: proximity of a measurement to the true value of a quantity
- Precision: proximity of several measurements to each other
Protons were discovered by...
Neutrons were discovered by ...
On a periodic table, rows are called _____ and columns are callled ___.
1A; 2A; 6A; 7A; 8A
- alkali metals
- alkali earth metals
- noble gases
Name the seven diatomic molecules
Three different reactions
Theoretical and Actual Yield
- T: calculate
- A: what actually comes out
Electrolyte and Nonelectrolyte
- E: dissociates into ions when dissolved in water
- N: dissolves in water but do not dissociates into ions
Seven strong Acids & formulas...the are also...?
- Hydrochloric Acid: HCl
- Hydrobromic Acid: HBr
- Hydroiodic Acid: HI
- Chloric Acid: HClO2
- Perchloric: HClO4
- Nitric Acid: HNO3
- Sulfuric: H2SO4
Strong Electrolytes are..
- strong acids
- strong bases
- soluble ionic salts
Soluble Ionic Compounds & Insoluble Compounds and important exceptions
Ionic Equation stuff
all strongelectrolytes, atrog bases, ad soluble ionic salty are siddociated into their ions when determinity the net ionic equation
solutions of an acid and a base are combined an the products are asalt an water
When a strong acid reacts with a strong base, what is the net ionic equation
H and OH produces H2O
when a carbonate or bicarbonate or sulfite reacts with an acid, what are the products?
salt, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide, and water
Sign conventions for q, w, and delta E.
- q is positive when system gains heat
- q is negative when system loses heat
- w is positive when work done on system
- w is negative when work done by system
- delta E positive when net gain of energy by system
- delta E negative when net loss of energy by system
Endothermic and Exothermic
- heat absorbed by the system from the surroundings
- heat released by the system into the surroundings
which are state functions:
internal energy, heat, work
when enthalpy is positive..
when enthalpy is negative..
Planck's constant, h
6.626 x 10-34 J-s
Speed of light, c
3.00 x 108
Rydberg constant, RH
2.18 x 10-18 J
values of n
values of l
values of ml
values of ms
- n > or = 1
- l are integer ranging for 0 to n-1
- ml are integers ranging from -l to l
- ms have only two values: +1/2 & -1/2
Cations are ____ than their parent atoms.
Anions are ____ than their parent atoms.
Sizes of Ions increase as....
- you go down a column
- you go from right to left on a period
ions have the same number of electrons
amount of energy required to remove an electron form the ground state of a gaseous atom or ion
ionization energy increases as..
- you go up a column
- and left to right across a period
- opposite of ionization
- energy change accompanying the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom
in general electron affinity becomes more exothermic as ....
you go from left to right across a row/perid
metallic character increases as..
you go from left to right across a row/period and down a column
characteristics of metals
- ductile and malleable
- good conductors of electricity
- tend to form cations in aq solutions
- most metal oxides are ionic solids that are basic
characteristics of nonmetals
- do not have luster; various colors
- solids are usually brittle, some hard some soft
- poor conductors of electricity
- nonmetal oxides are molecular substances that form acidic solutions
- tend to form anion or oxyanions in aq solutions
three chemical bonds
- ionic (electrostatic attractions b/w ions)
- covalent (sharing of electrons)
- metalllic (metal atoms bonded to several other atoms)
energy required to completely separtae a mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions
when two atoms share elecrons unequally
th ability of atoms in a molecule to attract electons to themselves
electronegativity increases as....
- you go from left to right across a row
- up a column
sigma and pi bonds
- sigma: cylindrical symmetry ofelectron density about the internuclear axis
- pi: electron density above and below the internuclear axis