anat/phy II

  1. which statment is true about the thymus gland?

    B. the thymus gland is the second primary organ

    • a. the thymus gland is located between the lungs - midsternum
    • b. the thymus gland is larger in adults than in infants -- THE OPPOSITE IS TRUE
    • d. the thymus gland's main function is the maturation and distribution of B cells? -- NOT B CELLS, T CELLS!
  2. The depression in the lymph node where the efferent vessels exit the node is called?

    C. hilium
  3. you have to perform immediate surgery on a patient who was in a car accident. when you open them up there is a white milky fluid in the abdominal area. what is this likely to be an indication of?

  4. which duct is considered the main collecting duct of the lumphatic system responsible for receiving lymph from the left side of the head, neck and chest, the left upper extremity and the entire body below the ribs?

  5. a 2 year old girl is running on the sidewalk and trips over her own food. she falls and scrapes her knee. she is experiencing pain, redness, swelling and heat around the injured area. These are all signs and symptoms of:

  6. which of the following are true about the thoracic duct?

  7. what are the two primary lymphatic organs?

  8. what is the largest lymphatic organ in the body?

  9. What is one function of the lymphatic system?

  10. what part of the thymus gland houses groups of dead epithelial cells?

  11. which of the following physical protections of the body are considered to be the first line of defense against invasions of pathogens?

  12. which of the following is not considered a chemical mediator of inflammation?

  13. how many liters of fluid are in the human bodY?

  14. what is filtered in the spleen?

    B. blood
  15. where in the body does primary fight of infection occur?

  16. the two basic types of specific immune responses are antibody-mediated and

  17. where is red bone marrow located?

  18. what does MALT stand for?
    Mucosa-Associated lymphatic tissue
  19. what is the lymph node composed of

  20. which of these is not a main lymphatic trunk?

  21. another name for the pharyngeal tonsil is:

  22. a 65 year old male arrives at the ER after a car accident. The staff takes a blood test to type his blood. They find elevated liver enzymes. What would be the cause?
    he has chronic liver failure and hep c
  23. patient present with cancer of the kidney and pelvic region on a MRI. doc decides to put patient thru a series of therapy but decides to use something other than radiation and chemo. what other drug/treatment might they use?
    interleukin 2
  24. the antibody that can cross the placenta and is the most abundant antibody produnced is

    D. IgG
  25. If blood (hydrostatic) pressure is 42, blood osmotic pressure is 19, intersitial fluid hydrostatic pressure is 3, and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure is 1 what is the net filtration pressure?

  26. Mr. Jones has suffered severe kidney damage from toxic levels of an antiboiotic. Which condition is he likely to develop?


    • Alkalosis is a condition in which the body fluids have excess base (alkali). This is the opposite of excess acid (acidosis).
    • The kidneys and lungs maintain the proper balance of chemicals, called acids and bases, in the body. Decreased carbon dioxide (an acid) or increased bicarbonate (a base) levels make the body too alkaline, a condition called alkalosis
  27. Your patient, Mr. Jones, has severe lung disease from tuberculosis. Which condition is he likely to develop?

  28. place the events at a chemical synapse in order in which they occur:

    1. action potential arrives at presynaptic neuron's end bulbs
    2. Ca2+ channels open which allow calcium ions to enter the synaptic end bulbs
    3. postsynaptic potential develops
    4. neurotransmitter bines to receptors on ligand-gated channels on postsynaptic membrane
    5. neurotransmitter exocytosis; diffuses across synaptic cleft
    1. action potential arrives at presynaptic neuron's end bulbs

    2. Ca2+ channels open which allow calcium ions to enter the synaptic end bulbs

    5. neurotransmitter exocytosis; diffuses across synaptic cleft

    4. neurotransmitter bines to receptors on ligand-gated channels on postsynaptic membrane

    3. postsynaptic potential develops
  29. A drug causes exocytosis of an excitatory neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. The drug therefore causes which of the following to take place:

  30. A patient has multiple sclerosis which has caused loss of myelin in his brain tissue. Which of the following cells is responsible for replaying the myelin?

  31. A patient is transported to the ER after being stabbed in the back several times with a broken ice pick. The attacker was apparently aiming for the spinal cord but fortunately did not directly hit the spinal cord. The phsycian is most worried about one wound; he mutters something about the rami communications. What would the physician be concerned about?

  32. Nerves that control motor activities that allow you to stick out your tongue and then smile are?
    VII and XII
  33. Nerves that allow you to see and hear fireworks?
    II and VIII
  34. Nerves that allow you to smell and taste your favorite food?
    I, VII, and IX
  35. If you wanted to invent a new glaucoma eyedrop to decrease the pressure in the eye by decreasing aqueous humor production, what structure would you target?

  36. about 1/4000 babies are born with esophageal atresia, a condition in which the esophagus does not connect to the stomach. Many of these infants also have a fistula, or opening, that connects the esophagus to the trachea. How will esophageal atresia with tracheosesophageal fistula affect an infant?

  37. Newborns are at increased risk for jaundice bc which important organ is not fully developed yet?

  38. a patient with renal failure may develop which of the following?

  39. the loop of Hanle

  40. Cyclic AMP is the 2nd messenger. What is the 1st messenger?

  41. a five-year old spent the day eating sweets. Which of the follow will occur?

  42. ovulation

  43. a male newborn has testes that have not descended from the abdomin into the scrotum. If this condition is not corrected it may lead to:

  44. 4 functions of the lymphatic system:

    1. Return excess interstitial fluid to the blood
    2. return leaked plasma proteins to the blood
    3. transport dietary lipids
    4. carry out immune responses:
    -production and distribution of lymphocytes called B cells and T cells
    • 1. Return excess interstitial fluid to the blood

    • 2. return leaked plasma proteins to the blood

    • 3. transport dietary lipids
    • PLASMA MEMBRANES use lipids and so do STEROIDS

    4. carry out immune responses: -production and distribution of lymphocytes called B cells and T cells
  45. The lymphatic system is composed of:

    -Lymphatic vessels
    -2 primary organs where stem cells can divide and mature
    -secondary organs and tissues where most immune responses occur
    The two primary organs are:

    • red bone marrow
    • thymus gland

    the secondary organs and tissues are:

    • -lymph nodes
    • -spleen
    • -mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)
  46. Lymphatic Capillaries:

    -bind end vessel located in the spaces between cells. drains excess interstitual fluid from the tissue spaces

    -in most parts of the body lymph is clear and similar to interstitial fluid

    -lymph draining from the SMALL INTESTINE is creamy white due to LIPIDS

    -Lymphatic capillaries in the small intestines are called LACTEALS (lact = milk)
    What is an abnormal amount of interstitial fluid called??

  47. Lymphatic capillaries are similar to BLOOD capillaries except lymphatic capillaries are:

    -larger endothelial cells
    -endothelial cells overlap one another
    -overlapping allows fluid to enter capillary but prevents it from flowing back out
    Image Upload 1
  48. Lymphatic VESSELS:

    lymphatic capillaries merge together to form larger vessels called LYMPHATIC VESSELS.

    they are similar to veins but have MORE VALVES
    lymphatic vessels carry LYMPH in and out of LYMPH NODES

    they merge to form lymphatic trunks
  49. so far:

    lymphatic capillaries merge together to form
    lymphatic vessels that merge together to form
    lymphatic trunks
    Main Lymphatic Trunks:

    • -Left/Right Jugular trunk (drain lymph from head and neck)
    • -Left/Right Subclavian (drain lymph from your upper extremeties)
    • -Left/Right Bronchomediastinal (drains your chest region)
    • -Left/Right Lumbar (drain lymph from lower extremeties)
    • -Intestinal

    Lymph flows from trunks into lymphatic DUCTS
  50. Lymphatic Ducts:

    Right lymphatic duct
    Thoracic duct
    The Thoracic Duct is the MAIN collecting duct of the lymphatic system

    • Receives lymph from the
    • left side of the head, neck, chest
    • upper left extremity
    • entire body below the ribs

    • The thoracic begins as a dilation (sac) called the CISTERNA CHYLI located in front of L2
    • The cisterna chyli receives the lymph from the right/left lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk
  51. Right Lymphatic Duct

    drains the upper right side of the body

    receives lymph from the right:
    bronchomediastinal trunks
    formation and flow of lymph

    • -arteries (as blood)
    • -blood capillaries (leak)
    • -tissue spaces (now fluid is called interstitial fluid)
    • -lymphatic capillaries (now called lymph)
    • -lymphatic vessels
    • -lymph nodes
    • -lymphatic vessels
    • -lymphatic trunks
    • -lymphatic ducts
    • -subclavian vein
  52. Control of lymph flow (just like veinous blood but without the help of the heart)

    -skeletal muscle pump
    -respiratory pump
    Starling's Law of the Capillaries (why and how we leak)

    • forces that make the plasma water want to come OUT (usually the bigger number):
    • Blood Hydrostatic Pressure BHP -blood pressure- (push blood plasma out)
    • Interstitial Fluid Osmotic Pressure IFHP pulls fluid out (baby spongebob)

    • forces that make the plasma water want to stay IN:
    • Interstitial Fluid Osmotic Pressure IFHP pulls fluid in (big spongebob)-usually close to zero-
    • Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure BCOP or BOP

    • If equation is not balanced then they may have EDEMA
    • causes of edema: High blood pressure and low protein (from not eating or diabetes)
  53. Red Bone Marrow

    -located in flat bones and epiphyses of long bones in adults
    -stem cells produce mature B cells and pre-T cells
    -mature B cells are distributed to the secondary lymphatic organs and tissues and pre-T cells migrate to the thymus gland
    Thymus Gland

    • -larger organ in infants than adults; atrophies with age
    • -Located in the anterior medialstinum between the lungs
    • -enclosed in a capsule (typical for organs)
    • -trabeculae divide it into lobules
    • -each lobule contains a cortex and a medulla
    • the cortex/medulla contain:
    • -T cells
    • -dendritic cells
    • -macrophages

    note: Thymic (Hassall's) Corpuscles (dead bodies) << THE DEAD EPITHELIAL CELLS
  54. Thymus Gland

    -the epitheila cells produce a hormone called thymosin that aids in the maturation of T cells

    maturation and distribution of T cells!
    T cells then are distributed to secondary lymphatic organs and tissues (Spleen, Lymph Node, MALT)

    As we age, our thymus gland grows smaller - means our T cell count is smaller too
  55. Lymph node

    -bean shaped organs
    -generally less then 1 ince long
    -located along lymphatic vessels

    • -filters debris and microbes from lymphs
    • -immune responses performed by B cells and T cells
    • (The 2 main types of lymphocytes)
  56. Lymph Nodes clusters (just naming 3)

    -Cervical (neck region)
    -Axillary (armpit)
    -Inguinal (groin)
    • when you have a patient that had her axillary lymph nodes taken out of the right armpit, their right arm will be swollen bc there's no lymph nodes to drain the lymphs.
    • do NOT stick the person in that arm and do you do NOT take blood pressure in that arm
  57. ELECTROLYTES in body fluids

    -control osmosis of water between fluid compartments
    Water follows salt
    help maintain acid-base balance
    -carry electrical current which allows production of electrical signals such as action potientials
    We live in a VERY TIGHT (small/narrow) range

    must know the ranges bc a couple of tenths high or low they can die!
Card Set
anat/phy II
anatomy and physiology II