Epidemiology Chapter 1

  1. Analytic Epidemiology
    A type of epidemiology that examines causal hyptheses regarding the association between exposures and health conditions. The field of analytic epidemiology prpposes and evaluates causal models for etiologic associations and studies them empirically.
  2. Descriptive Epidemiology
    Epidemiologic studies that are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population.
  3. Determinant
    A factor or event that is capable of bringing about a change in the health status of a population.
  4. Distribution
    The occurrence of diseases and other health outcomes varies in populations, with some subgroups of the populations more frequently affected than others.
  5. Epidemic
    Occurrence of a disease clearly in excess of normal expectancy.
  6. Epidemiologic Transition
    A shift in the pattern of morbidity and mortality from causes related primarily to infections and communicable diseases to causes associated with chronic, degenerative diseases.
  7. Epidemiology
    Concerned with the distribution and determinants of health and disease, morbidity, injuries, disability, and mortality in populations. Epidemiologic studies are applied to the control of health problems in populations.
  8. Exposure
    Contact with a disease-causing factor; the amount of the factor that impinges upon a group or individual.
  9. John Snow
    An English anestheisiologist who innovated epidemiologic methods to identify the source of a cholera ourbreak.
  10. Morbidity
    occurrence of an illness or illnesses in a population
  11. Mortality
    Occurrance of death ina population.
  12. Natural Experiment
    A type of research design in which the experimenter does not control the manipulation of a study factor. The manipulation of the study factor occurs as a result of natural phenomenon or policies that impact health, an example being laws that control smoking in public places.
  13. Observational Science
    A science that capitalizes on naturally occurring situations in order to study the occurrence of disease.
  14. Outcome
    A result that may arise from an exposure.
  15. Pandemic
    An epidemic that spans a wide geographic area.
  16. Population
    All the inhabitants of a given country or area considered together.
  17. Primary Prevention of Disease
    Prevention of disease before it occurs.
  18. Secondary Prevention of Disease
    Activities that limit the progression of disease.
  19. Tertiary Prevention of Disease
    Restoring optimal functioning for a patient.
  20. RIsk
    The probablity that an event will occur; that an individul will become ill or die within a stated period of time or by a certain age.
  21. Risk Assessment
    Methodology to provide quantitative measurements of risks to health.
  22. Risk Factor
    An exposure that is associated with a disease, morbidity, mortality, or adverse health outcome.
  23. 5 Uses of Epidemiology
    • Historical
    • Community Health
    • Health Services
    • Risk assessment
    • Disease Causality
  24. Historical Use
    Study of the history and health of populations
  25. Community health use
    Diagnose the health of the community
  26. Health Services Use
    Study the working of health services
  27. Risk Assessment Use
    Estimate individuals risks of disease, accident, or defect.
  28. Disease Causality Use
    Search for the causes of health and disease.
  29. Hippocrates
    • Greek authority departed from supersititous reasons for disease outbreaks
    • Wrote: On Airs, Waters, and Places
    • Suggested disease might be associated with environmental factors
  30. Black Death
    • 1346-1352
    • Claimed up to 1/3 of the population of Europe
    • Caused by Y. pestis infection from flea bites
    • Swollen lymph nodes, fever, necrosis of skin
  31. Paracelcus
    • One of the founders of toxicology
    • Dose-response relationship
    • Notion of target organ specificity of chemicals
  32. Graunt
    • Published "Natural and Political Observations Mentioned in a Following Index" and "Made Upon the Bills of Mortality"
    • First to employ quanitative methods
    • Knows as the Columbus of Statistics
  33. Ramazzini
    • Founder of the field of occupational medicine
    • Authored: "De Morbis Artficum Diatriba"- Disease of Workers
  34. Pott
    • First person to describe environmental cause of cancer
    • Observed that chimney sweeps had high incidence of scrotal cancer
  35. Jenner
    Developed a method for smallpox vaccination in 1796
  36. Snow
    Believed cholera was transmitted by contaminated water and demonstrated this association
  37. Farr
    • Developed a more sophisticated system for codifying medical conditions
    • Examined a possible link between mortality rates and population density
  38. Koch
    Demonstrated the association between a microorganism and disease
  39. Langmuir
    • First chief epidemiologist for the CDC
    • Established EIS
  40. Ethics
    Refers to norms for conudct that distinguist between acceptable and unacceptable behavior
  41. Tuskegee Study
    • Syphilis investigation from 1932-1972
    • Purpose: To study the natural history of syphilis in hopes of justifying treatment programs for blacks
    • 600 African American men participated
    • Despite discover of penicillin, they were never offered treatment
  42. ACE
    • American College of Epidemiology
    • Developed ethics guidelines
  43. Top 4 Countries for Obesity
    • 1. Mexico
    • 2. US
    • 3. New Zealand
    • 4. UK
  44. Factors that could cause early onset of puberty
    • 1. Obesity
    • 2. Hormones in food
    • 3. Chemicals in food packaging
Card Set
Epidemiology Chapter 1
Epidemiology Chapter 1/ Exam 1