steph m

  1. What are the four goals of pyscology?
    • 1. Description
    • 2. Explanaton
    • 3.Prediction
    • 4. Influence (control)
  2. What goals of psychology are basic research?
    description, explanation, prediction
  3. What goals of psychology are applied research?
    Influence (control)
  4. Basic vs. applied research
    Basic: research conducted to seek new knowledge and to explore and advance general scientific understanding

    Applied: research conducted specifically to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life.
  5. Types of descriptive research
    • 1. Naturalistic Observation
    • 2. Laboratory Observation
    • 3. Case Study
    • 4. Surveys
  6. Naturalistic Observation
    • -More natural but problems with wait and observational
    • - A research method where the subject(s) is(are) observed without interruption under normal or natural circumstances
  7. Laboratory Observation
    more control but more expensive, and less like the real world
  8. Case Study
    • -great detail
    • -problems with generalizability
  9. Surveys
    -fast and cheap but can be affected by wording and context
  10. Samples
    Portion of the entire population used to estimate what is likely happening within a population
  11. Populations
    The entire group to which research is hoping to generalize (e.g., males, adults, U.S. citizens)
  12. Confounds
    Any variable that is not part of a research study but still has an effect on the research result
  13. Sources of confounds
    • 1. selection bias
    • 2. the placebo effect
    • 3. experimenter bias

    confound: something that affects an experiment
  14. Random Assignment
    -The process of selecting participants for experimental and control groups by using a chance procedure to guarantee that each participant has an equal probability of being assigned to any of the groups: a control for selection bias
  15. Placebos
    A treatment condition used to control for the placebo effect where the treatment has no real effect on its own
  16. Cause and effect relationships
  17. True experiments
    Research design that utilizes the most control over subjects and utilizes randomization
  18. Correlation coefficients
    The statistic or number representing the degree to which two or more variables are related. Often abbreviated 'r
  19. The structure of the nueron
    • -cell body
    • -dendrites
    • -axon
  20. Communication between nuerons
    • -information is carried out of the axon and through the den
    • -nuerons differ in myelnation and diameter
    • -communication is synaptic
    • -sausage type is myelin sheath
    • -insulates and speeds information
    • -nuerons are not at rest-negative
  21. Cerebellum
    • -Preforms higher mental functions such as language and special outlines
    • -(new brain)
  22. Amygdala
    -Emotion and aggressive behavior
  23. Hippocampus
    -memory consolidation and cognitive maps
  24. Cerebral Cortex
    - Responsible for the higher mental processes such as language, memory and thinking
  25. Somatosensory Cortex
    • -orientation
    • -plasticity means experience changes brain
    • -there are gender differences
  26. Phineas Gage
    Was a railroad worker and had an iron pole put through his head, which caused severe psychological changes in him. The iron rod caused frontal lobe damage and severe personality changes. Was a nice guy but changed to rude and impulsive
  27. Frontal Lobe (longest)
    • -motor cortex- voluntary body movement
    • -broca's area- speech production
    • -frontal association area-judgement, personality,attention, abstract thoughts
  28. Parietal Lobe (touch)
    • -samatosensory cortex-orientation
    • -plasticity means experience changes brain
    • -there are gender differences
  29. Occipital Lobe (visual)
    -visual cortex (primary) for seeing
  30. Temporal Lobe (auditory)
    • -primary auditory cortex-where we hear
    • -wernicke's area-speech reception
  31. Plasticity
    The ability of the brain, especially in our younger years to compensate for damage
  32. Broca's Area vs. Wernicke's Area
    • Broca's area: speech production
    • Wernicke's area: speech reception
  33. The primary visual cortex & what damage to one side does
    • -the area at the end of the occipital lobes where vision is registered
    • -if damage is done to one side, in both eyes they will have partial vision because each eye sends information to both the left and right occipital lobes
  34. The primitive central core
    • -basic life
    • -maintaining processes ( medulla, pons, cerebellum, lower brainstem, parts of thalamus, and hypothalamus
  35. Old Brain (limbic system)
    • -The four F's of survival
    • -amygdala, hippcompus, parts of thalamus, and hypothalamus
    • -fighting, feeding, feeling, fucking
  36. New brain (cerebellum)
    • -Higher mental functions
    • -amygdala-emotion +agressive behavior
    • -hippocompus-memory consolidation and cognitive maps
  37. The Yerkes-Dodsen Law
    -The principle that performance on tasks is best when the arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task, high arousal for simpler tasks, moderate arousal for moderate tasks, and lower arousal for complex tasks
  38. Components of motivation
    • -social motives are learned
    • -the need for achievement (nAch) is an internalized standard of excellence
    • -high nAch choose difficult, attainable goals
    • -work motivation can be increased by:
    • 1. reinforcement
    • 2.goal setting, difficult yet attainable


    First steps required to achieve goal


    • Faithful and continued effort put forth in
    • working toward a goal

    Plan into action and stick with it


    • Refers to focused energy and attention applied in
    • order to achieve the goal
  39. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation
    • Intrinsic: internal desire to preform a certain task
    • Extrinsic: external source making a person want to do a task such as praise or money
  40. Instincts
    A behavior that is genetically programmed into an entire species. Thus, the behavior is not the result of learning, and can be seen across members of a species.
  41. Drive-Reduction Theory
    • Theory based on homeostasis and that there is an optimal level for everything
    • A theory of motivation suggesting that biological
    • needs create internal states of tension or arousal, called drives, which
    • organisms are motivated to reduce
  42. VMH
    • -Ventromedial Hypothalamus
    • -Tells you when you are full
  43. LH
    • -Lateral Hypothalamus
    • -Tells you when you are hungry
  44. Cues to start eating
    • -low glucose
    • -high insulin
    • -stomach contractions
    • -food present or others eating
    • -stress, boredom, time of the day
  45. Cues to stop eating
    • -high blood glucose
    • -feelings of fullness in the stomach
    • -unappetizing food
    • -habits, stress
  46. Which food cues are biological rather then environmental?
    • -low glucose
    • -feelings of fullness
  47. Metabolic Rate
    • -The amount of energy you expend at rest
    • -2/3 of ones daily output of calories
  48. Body size and heredity
    • -Obesity may be inherited
    • -Fraternal twins have 32% chance
    • -Identical twins have 74% chance to be obese if the other is
  49. Set-Point Theory
    -Everyone has a set body temperature and weight that they are supposed to always stay close to
  50. Annorexia Nervosa
    • -A severe restriction of food intake, and excessive thinness
    • -Reduction of weight from 15 to 25%
    • - Absence of mensturation
    • -Distorted attitude
  51. Bulimia Nervosa
    • -binge eating and guilt
    • -recurrent binges
    • -feelings of lack of control
    • -use of vomiting, fasting, laxatives, or exercise to prevent weight gain
  52. Need for achievment
    • -The need for achievement is an internalized standard of excellence
    • -People with a high NACH choose difficult but attainable goals
  53. How can work motivation be increased?
    • -Reinforcement, or incentives
    • -Goal setting, difficult yet attainable for high NACH
  54. Internal Locus of Control
    -Comes from peoples belief of what causes good or bad in the outcome in academics of health
  55. 3 Components of emotion
    • - Physical
    • -Cognitive
    • -Behavioral
  56. Physical Emotion
    -physiological arousal
  57. Cognitive Emotion
    -The interpretation or label that is assigned to feelings
  58. Behavioral Emotion
    -Expression of feeling
  59. Display Rules
    • -Tell us when to enhance or repress emotion bc it is contagious
    • -Ex. faking a surprised face if you knew about a surprise party
  60. James-Lange Theory
    • -Physical and behavioral causes emotion
    • a.Theory
    • that emotional feelings result when an individual becomes aware of a
    • physiological response to an emotion-provoking stimulus

    • b. Physical
    • and behavioral causes of emotion
  61. Cannon-Bard Theory
    • -Emotion occurs simultaneousness
    • a. Emotional-provoking
    • stimulus is transmitted simultaneously to the cerebral cortex, providing the conscious mental experience of the sympathetic nervous system, causing the
    • physiological arousal
  62. Schachter-Singer Theory
    • -Must have physiological and cognitive
    • A 2 factor theory stating that for an emotion to occur. There must be:
    • Physiological arousal

    • A cognitive interpretation or explanation of
    • arousal, allowing It to be labeled as a specific emotion

    • b. Physiological
    • and cognitive
  63. Lazarus Theory
    • -Cognitive comes first then physiological
    • Cognitive appraisal is the first step in an emotional response and all other aspects of
    • an emotion, including physiologically arousal, depend on it
    • Cognitive comes first
  64. The Facial Feedback Hypothesis
    -Emotion is influenced by facial muscle feedback
  65. The Polygraph
    • -Lie detectors measure physiological change
    • -To fool it, tense during the control questions to throw it off or distract yourself
  66. Measuring Stress ( SRRS )
  67. Homes and Rahe’s measure of stress, which ranks
    43 life events from most to least stressful and assigns a point value to each

    • Score above a 300 – more likely to suffer a major
    • health problem within the next 2 years

    150-300 50% chance of becoming ill

    Appropriate for adults in north America
  68. Sources of Stress
    • -Life events, or major life changes
    • -Micro-stressors- everyday hassles
  69. Predictable vs. Unpredictable Stressors
  70. Microstressors
    • -Everyday hassles
    • -developed by lazarus
  71. 3 Choice Related Conflicts
    • 1. Approach-Approach
    • 2. Avoidance-Avoidance
    • 3. Approach-Avoidance
  72. Approach-Approach
    • -Ex. movies, theatre
    • -Arises from having to choose between equally
    • desirable alternatives
    • -What movie to see - small
    • -Leave work to raise child – big
  73. Avoidance-Avoidance
    • -Ex. studying, cleaning
    • -Arises from having to choose between undesirable
    • alternatives
    • -Avoid studying for exam or avoid failing test
  74. Aproach-Avoidance
    • -Ex. hot fudge sundae, too many calories
    • -Same choice has both desirable and undesirable
    • features
    • -Take a wonderful vacation, but empty savings account
  75. P.T.S.D
    • -Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
    • -Is a severe reaction to an extreme event
  76. 3 General Adaption Syndrome
    • 1. Alarm Reaction
    • 2. Stage of Resistance
    • 3. Stage of Exhaustion
  77. Alarm Reaction
    • -The first stage you enter in a traumatic event
    • -Ex. Stung by a bee on the arm, whole body goes into a panic
    • -Person experiences a bursts of energy that aids
    • in dealing with the stressful situation
  78. Stage of Resistance
    • -This is the stage where resistance is highest
    • -The arm is now swollen from the bee sting, but your whole body is not harmed
    • -When there are intense physiological efforts to
    • either resist or adapt to the stressor
  79. Stage of Exhaustion
    • -The stage when your body goes back to a general alarm and the whole body is involved again
    • - Which occurs if the organism fails in its efforts
    • to the stressor
  80. The Cognitive Theory of Stress
    -Lazarus came up with the idea that it is not the stressor that causes stress, but how the person deals with it
  81. Primary vs. Secondary Appraisal of Stress
    • -Primary-Am I ok or in trouble? A cognitive evaluation of deciding if a situation is positive or negative
    • -Secondary-Is this in my control? Using available resources and options to deal with stress
  82. 3 Coping Strategies
    • 1. Problem Focused- Go to the source.
    • -A direct response aimed at reducing modifying or
    • eliminating a source of stress
    • 2. Emotion Focused- Manage reaction, do yoga or meditation
    • - A response involving reappraisal of a stressor to
    • reduce its emotional impact
    • 3. Proactive- Effort made beforehand to avoid a conflict
  83. What is the number one killer of americans?
    -Coronary Heart Disease
  84. Reducing the risk of CHD
    • -Coronary Heart Disease has factors that are both modifiable and non modifiable
    • -Modifiable Factors: Smoking, Exercise, Diet
    • -Non-Modifiable Factors: Genetics
  85. Type A Personalities
    • -Type A is especially prone towards heart disease
    • -A behavior pattern marked by a sense of time urgency, impatience, excessive competitiveness, hostility, anger
  86. Type B Personalities
    Behavior patterns marked by a relaxed ,easy going approach to life, without the time urgency, impatience or hostility type A has
  87. Personality factors that affect stress and illness
  88. Which part of the type A personality influences stress?
  89. Benefits of Social Optimism
    -Cancer's stress can be reduced by social support, it is very important-The immune system is effected by stress
  90. Alternative Medicine
    • -Not proven scientifically
    • -Risks can interfere with traditional treatment
    • -Benefits may help or prevent illness but lifestyle change is much better
  91. How to protect yourself from stress
    • -Be optimistic
    • -Have a hardy attitude, feel in control
    • -Have faith, increase religiousness
    • -Get and give social support
  92. Gender Differences in Medical Care
    -Womens heart health is not viewed as serious as mens
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