1. applied research
    Research conducted primarily for the purpose of solving an existing problem.
  2. basic research
    Research conducted primarily for the purpose of simply obtaining knowledge
  3. causal hypothesis
    A hypothesis that tentatively explains a particular influence on, or cause of, a behavior.
  4. conceptual replication
    The repeated test or confirmation of a hypothesis using a design different from that of the original study.
  5. confirmation
    Evidence that are consistent with the hypotheses.
  6. control
    The elimination of unintended, extraneous factors that might influence the behavior being studied.
  7. data
    The scores of participants in psychological research that reflect a behavior.
  8. descriptive hypothesis
    A hypothesis that tentatively describes a behavior in terms of its characteristics or the situation in which it occurs.
  9. design
    The specific manner in which a research study is conducted.
  10. determinism
    The assumption that behavior is solely influenced by natural causes and does not depend on free will.
  11. disconfirmation
    The process of rejecting a hypothesis because evidence disproves it.
  12. empirical
    The requirement of science that the basis for conclusions about nature be through observation of it.
  13. falsifiable
    The requirement of a scientific hypothesis that it be possible for a test to show that the hypothesis is false.
  14. hypothesis
    A formally stated expectation about a behavior that defines the purpose and goals of a research study.
  15. lawful
    The assumption that events in nature can be understood as a predictable sequence of natural causes and effects.
  16. literal replication
    The precise duplication of the specific design and results of a previous study.
  17. model
    A generalized, hypothetical description that, by analogy, explains the process underlying a set of common behaviors.
  18. objectivity
    The requirement of science that a researcher's personal biases do not influence observations or conclusions.
  19. open-minded
    Scientific attitude that considers all possible explanations and looks in all directions and believes that any approach or statement may be correct.
  20. parsimonious
    Criteria for scientific hypothesis in which the hypothesis must be as simple as possible, making few assumptions or propositions.
  21. participants
    The individuals in a sample.
  22. precise
    Criteria for scientific hypothesis in which the hypothesis must contain terms that are clearly defined.
  23. prediction
    A statement as to how a behavior will be manifested in a research situation, describing the specific results that will be found.
  24. pseudo-explanation
    A circular statement that explains an event by renaming it.
  25. rational
    A criteria for scientific hypothesis in which the hypothesis logically fits with what is already known about the laws of behavior.
  26. research ethics
    The question of how to balance the rights of a researcher to study a behavior with the rights of participants to be protected from abuse.
  27. scientific method
    The assumptions, attitudes, goals, and procedures for creating and answering questions about nature in a scientific manner.
  28. statistical notation
    The standardized code for the mathematical operations performed in formulas, for the order in which operations are performed, and for the answers obtained.
  29. subjects
    Synonym, but outdated, of participants.
  30. systematic
    Refers to variables that change consistently.
  31. testable
    A requirement of a scientific hypothesis that it be possible to devise a test of the hypothesis.
  32. theory
    A logically organized set of proposals that defines, explains, organizes, and interrelates knowledge about many behaviors.
Card Set
Ch. 1: Introduction to the Scientific Method