1. What are the general names for blood vessels and relative pressures?
    • Arteries - Deliver blood to the organs from the heart (80mmhg - 120mmhg)
    • Veins - Deliver blood to the heart (7 mmhg)
  2. Describe some pathologies which can arise from faulty heart valves.
    • Left side output reduced
    • Pulmonary Edema
    • Right side output reduced
    • Peripheral Edema
    • Ascites (Abdominal Edema)
  3. What is the maximum diffusion distance between a capillary and a cell?
    300 - 500 micrometers
  4. What are the blood vessels which serve the large blood vessels called?
    Vasa Vasorum
  5. What are the names of the heart valves?
    • LO - Aortic Valve
    • LI - Mitral Valve (Bicuspid)
    • RO - Pulmonary Valve
    • Ri - Tricuspid Valve
  6. Give the parts of the Cardiac Cycle
    • Distole (60% of time)
    • 1) Pv ~ 0, A-c, M-o
    • 2) Pv up toward 7mmhg and the flaccid wall begins to stretch until mycardial stretch balances filling pressure.
    • Systole (40% of time)
    • 3) Contraction begins at the apex with a twist
    • + M-c and A-c
    • + Isovolemic systole, P up, Vol constant
    • 4) A-o, Pv goes up to 120 mmhg, then quickly drops back to zero
  7. What are the ways to increase the cardiac output?
    • CO = Stroke Volume * BPM
    • 1) Increase BPM
    • -Electrical stimuli
    • -Chemical stimuli (Norepinephrine - "Adrenalin")
    • 2) Increase STV
    • -Increase contraction of upstream veins. Preload therefore Pv goes up and stretch in the ventricular walls increases.
    • -Decrease the arterial pressure. Afterload drops and residual volume drops.
  8. What are the steps of cardiomyocyte polarization?
    • 1) Energy is spent (ATP) to pump Na out of the cell which draws K in and charges the cell to -90mv
    • 2) Spontaneously, the membrane switches from an insulator to a conductor and Na rushes in and K out. Voltage rises and overshoots zero.
    • 3) The acceleration of the current causes an electrical field and a magnetic field for each cell.
  9. How does the heart fire electrically?
    • 1) CMC in the sinoarterial node depolarize at a faster rate and initiate electrical diastole through atrium.
    • -This initiates the "atrium kick"
    • -Valve rings insulate ventrical
    • 2) Depolarization is allowed into the ventricle with a delay through the atrial ventricular node.
    • 3) Depolarization is sent to the apex through the Purkinje fibers.
    • 4) Electrical systole begins and the heart contracts and twist from the apex upward.
Card Set
Bio_Mechanical Engineering Course