1. Description of disgust
    • Feelings: revulsion, nausea
    • action tendency: distancing away, turn away, avoid, reject
    • nausea –> discourages eating
    • vomit –> undoes ingestion mistake
  2. Facial expressions of disgust
    wrinkling of the nose, stops you from smelling it
  3. Newborn infants
    • give a baby something new to taste they will make a face of disgust
    • bitter substance on tongue –> disgust expression
    • it a neurochemical response that causes this whole reaction
    • primitive avoidance mechanism (or minimum cortical involvement)
    • unsure if babies are feeling the emotion of disgust, we just know for sure they are making the facial expression
  4. Developmental course of disgust
    • core disgust
    • elaborated disgust
    • elaborated disgust cross-culturally
  5. core disgust
    associated with bad food, begins with taste and smells
  6. Omnivores dilemma
    • Omnivores eat plant and meat
    • sensation seeking vs. "neophobic" (afraid of the new)
    • Sensation seeking try new things
    • Non sensation seeking try new things less often
  7. Advantages and disadvantages of omnivores
    Advantages: flexibly not dependent on 1 food source Disadvantages: increase risk of consuming toxins
  8. Possible fxn of Omnivores dilemma
    • Rejection of physically harmful objects
    • Avoid contaminated food and water
  9. Biological significance hypothesis (Angyal)
    • increase food disgust over animals and animal waste products
    • may be an adaptation
    • microbes and parasites bad for ppl (transmitted by physical contact with animals and their residues)
    • disgust evolved to "contact history" (what is it? where has it been?)
    • selective advantage for those concerned with contact history of things touched and eaten
  10. Principles involved in spread of disgust
    • contagion: once in contact, always in contact (ex. clothes)
    • similarity: objects similar in some properties are felt to be fundamentally similar (nurses)
  11. Developmental study of disgust (Rozen)
    Learned by 9-12 yrs that they are not okay to eat form their culture/exp
  12. summary of core disgust
    • core disgust elicited by food, animals, body products these elicitors are "contamination"
    • oral defense
    • may be evolutionary adaptation to microbial threats
  13. elaborated disgust
    reject social things and psychological things process for rejection of physically harmful objects usurped for rejection of psychological objects
  14. What disgusts us?
    • core disgust items (food, animals, body products)
    • "deviant" sexual matters
    • mutilation, bloody corpses ("forcible breach or alteration of exterior envelope")
  15. Why sex and blood?
    • Theory (Haidt and Rozin)
    • Disgust items remind us of our animal nature
    • Have need to distinguish from animal nature
    • problem: body reminds us we are animals (eat, excrete, bleed when cut)
    • try to hide biological process (animalness) by defining specifically human ways to perform them
    • every culture prescribes proper way to handle bodily fxns those who violate norms are reviled or shunned
  16. Fear of Death Hypothesis (Becker)
    • Fear of death and insignificance
    • human culture – attempts to deny or repress this fear animals mortal –> we're animals –> we're mortal
  17. socio-mortal
    • contamination sensitivity – avoid pollution and maintain purity in material world
    • human societies need to reject many things – sexual and social deviants
    • core disgust = rejection system – harnessed to other kinds of rejection
    • extension of "disgust schema" to social world – avoid "evil and increase contact with "goodness"
    • word "disgust" also used for socio-moral violations
    • socio-moral disgust – metaphoric quirk of english?
  18. elaborated disgust cross-culturally
    across cultures: nausea and revulsion linked to core-disgust and social-moral disgust
  19. Cross cultural study of Disgust (Haidt)
    • subjects: jap. vs US students
    • DV: descriptions of 3 disgust-eliciting evens

    • Results: Cultural similarities
    • # (25%) and type of core disgust items (cockroach)
    • # and type of animal-reminder disgust items (blood accidents)
    • # sociocultural disgust items
    • 61% of items in japan; 70% in US
  20. Cultual difference in types of sociocultural events
    • US:
    • acts on senseless violence or cruelty (ex. mass murder)
    • ugly or offensive beliefs and attitudes (racist attitudes)

    • Japan:
    • Social frustration; others fail to meet needs, or abuse or shame self (ex. criticized for my driving)
    • self-failed to live up to standards (ex. failed exams)
Card Set
Psyc 153 Disgust Lecture