1. The goal of anger
    Goal obstacle removal or retaliation/punishment
  2. Izard Exp
    • • 2-6 months showed main expressions of "distress"
    • • 2nd expression "anger" (but it was relatively short)

    • • 18 months - main expression in anger
    • • brief "distress" exp. (this could be because they now have some control of the world around them)
  3. Lewis Exp
    • 2 month old infants learns to pull string that causes music When the string no longer works (and then monitor the babies exp)
    • They show angry faces and fussing
    • Arm movements correlated with anger expression
    • String is made to work again (show individual difference)
    • The babies that showed more anger relearned more quickly and showed more joy
    • Babies that showed sadness did not learn as quickly nor show as much joy
    • Anger - obstacle related
  4. frustration
    • failure to receive expected gratification
    • unpleasant mood
    • aggressive behaviors
  5. Dollard
    Frustration <–> Aggression


    • occurs regardless
    • • Of effectiveness of behaviors
    • • of moral legitimacy

    contrasts with Aristotle and Fxnalist
  6. Perceived injustice
    • Economists and Ultimatum Game
    • Dictator Game
    • Monkeys (Bosman)
  7. Mitigation Information
    • Justification
    • excuses
    • apologies
  8. Economists and Ultimatum Game
    • economists think that people are rational and will make decisions based on all the information they have, however they do realize they are not always rational
    • Proposer divides the $ Respondent accepts or rejects
    • Acceptance - get $
    • Rejection no $
  9. Nash Equilibrium (?) solution
    you should keep 9.95 and the other person should take .05 becuase that is rational
  10. Modal Offer
    50% of $
  11. Results of Ultimatum Game
    • Lowball offers are often rejected
    • Why do ppl reject? SPITE
  12. Cameron
    • Indonesians played for 200,000 rupees (3 mo. salary)
    • Modal Offer: 50% 5
    • Lowball offers reflected 10% of the time
    • The greater the anger you felt the more likely you are to reject
  13. Dictator Game
    • Offers are less equal than Ultimatium game
    • Rarely offer nothing
  14. Monkeys (Bosman)
    • (innate sense of fairness and have an aversion to inequity)
    • inequality conditions less likely to exchange token for cucumber
    • why? because they also live in groups because there are advantages
  15. Is Spite Fxnal?
    • if interactions are repeated, maybe in long-term interest to retaliate
    • fxn - deter others from mistreating you in future interactions
  16. Anger Management (video)
    • no evidence that letting your anger out actually helps
    • in the experiment - did NOT decrease aggression it actually increased it.
Card Set
Psyc 153 Anger Lecture