Music 252

  1. Apollonian vs. Dionysian
    Apo-sobriety; individual

    Dio-god of intoxication, wanton lust, excess, suffering; whole

    made by Friedrich Nietzsche
  2. Beat
    The level of pulse that best expresses the heartbeat of the musical flow. It tends to be on the faster side, like a heartbeat (vs. a walking rhythm).
  3. Measure
    The grouping of beats into larger, clearly perceptible units of time. Since measures group beats, the measure is slower than the beat.
  4. Downbeat
    The pulse that marks first beat of each measure. The downbeat is commonly the strongest beat of each measure.
  5. Upbeat
    Any beat of the measure that is not a downbeat. (more on this presently.)
  6. Meter
    The regular organization of rhythm, involving beats, downbeats, and measures. Meter aligns with the rhythmic grid; oversimplifying a bit, we could simply say that meter is the rhythmic grid.
  7. 4-beat vs. 2-beat feel
    Four-beat time, 4/4 time, 4/4, or simply four; While other music tends more to a two-beat feel, which musicians call two-beat time, 2/4 time (or 2/2), 2/4, or simply two.

    2: boom-chuck or oom-pah; marching-band music, country music, ragtime, and much early jazz;

    4: jazz, beginning with swing; walking
  8. Backbeat
    At beat 3 of the four-beat measure. This means that there are stronger and weaker upbeats. Since it is relatively strong, this middle beat is usually called a backbeat, rather than an upbeat. In jazz, R&B, gospel, and rock, it is often played hard, creating what is called a backbeat rhythm or simply a 'backbeat.' By counterbalancing the downbeat, a strong backbeat gives an extra push to the music and to the dancers, creating potent energy and drive.
  9. Offbeat
    divisions within the beat
  10. Swing Beat
    the first half of the beat lasting longer than the second half. the latter kind of division produces what is called swing rhythm (or feel, or beat; also sometimes referred to as shuffle rhythm), because it gives a lilting or 'swinging' feel to the beat; and it is, as you might expect, essential to the jazz style called 'swing.'

    rough division of the beat into three parts
  11. Boogie-Woogie
    Intense rhythmic emphasis; Even the divided parts of the beat -- whether straight or swing -- are emphasized too. for that reason, boogie rhythm is sometimes referred to as eight-beat rhythm
  12. Syncopation
    Syncopation, meaning a musical attack that occurs on a relatively weak beat (or offbeat) at the expense of a neighboring strong beat which receives no attack
  13. Timbre
    specific, unique quality of sound made by any voice, instrument, or combination of the two
  14. Fixed vs. Variable Pitch
    pianos are made in such a way that each piano key can only strike one, unvarying, fixed pitch, while the human voice can create all kinds of variable pitch through bending and sliding, all the way up and down its range
  15. Scale
    melodic grid, which is analogous to the rhythmic grid we discussed last time; octave
  16. Diatonic
    • -traditional scales found in Western
    • -diatonic scales include seven pitches

    Major: strength or happiness, but can be used for all kinds of emotions, including irony, melancholy, and bitterness

    Minor: Emotion or sadness, but can also be used to express almost any emotion, including grandeur, violence, or good times
  17. Chromatic
    12 pitches; includes sharps/flats; dissonant

    chromatic inflections -- added sharps or flats -- are frequently introduced into diatonic scales in order to add color, spice, or some other desirable quality
  18. Modal Scales
    • On different keys, etc
    • -Modal scales are often labeled with names borrowed from ancient Greece, including mixolydian, lydian, dorian, phrygian, etc
  19. Mixolydian
    • variant or subset of the major scale, except that its seventh degree (7) is lower (flatted) than the seventh degree of a major scale
    • -G mode
    • -the mixolydian seventh, being lowered, sounds softer, and has more of a tendency to lead downwards from the tonic
  20. Lydian
    • -melodic and expressive 'feel'
    • -the lydian has a raised (sharp) fourth degree
    • -luminous, otherworldly, or 'outer-space modern' effect
  21. Pentatonic Scales
    five different pitches within the octave

    • Major: degrees 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6, letting go of degrees 4 and 7
    • -European American music

    • Minor: degrees 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7
    • -heart of African American singing traditions
  22. Blues Notes
    a 'blue note' is a pitch space, rather than a pitch point: it is a place in certain scales where you can bend, dig in, wail, or otherwise move around, rather than hitting and staying on one precise pitch

    third, fifth, and seventh degrees of the diatonic minor scale
Card Set
Music 252
Music Terms