1. Vitamin E
    • Tocopherols, tocotrienols
    • Fat-soluble antioxidant, especially in cell membranes
    • Roles in cell signaling
    • Seed oils
    • Supplements-dangerous in excess
    • Deficiency: Extremely rare—serious neurologic dysfunction
  2. Vitamin K
    • Phylloquinone, menaquinones
    • Fat-soluble vitamin that is not extensively stored in the body
    • Dark-green veggies
    • Coenzyme in formation of gamma-carboxyglutamate in enzymes of blood clotting and bone matrix
    • Bone and vascular health
    • Deficiency: Impaired blood clotting, hemorrhagic disease
  3. Vitamin A
    • Retinol, beta-carotene: Fat-soluble vitamin
    • Vision, immune fx, growth
    • Retinol - dangerous in excess
    • Pro-vitamin carotenoids - less danger
    • Visual pigments in the retina; regulation of gene expression/cell differentiation
    • (beta-carotene is an antioxidant)
    • Deficiency: Night blindness, xerophthalmia; keratinization of skin
  4. Vitamin D
    • Calciferol
    • regulation of gene expression & cell differentiation, immune fx, Ca2+ absorption, bone health
    • fish, fortified foods (danger in excess)
    • sun-exposed skin (no danger)
    • Deficiency: Rickets = poor mineralization of bone;
    • osteomalacia = bone demineralization
  5. B1
    • Thiamin
    • Coenzyme in pyruvate and -ketoglutarate
    • dehydrogenases, and transketolase; regulates Cl– channel in nerve conduction
    • Deficiency: Peripheral nerve damage (beriberi) or CNS lesions (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome)
  6. B2
    • Riboflavin
    • Coenzyme in oxidation and reduction reactions
    • (FAD and FMN); prosthetic group of flavoproteins
    • Deficiency: Lesions of corner of mouth, lips, and tongue,
    • seborrheic dermatitis
  7. Niacin
    • Coenzyme in oxidation and reduction reactions,
    • functional part of NAD and NADP; role in intracellular calcium regulation and cell signaling
    • Deficiency: Pellagra—photosensitive dermatitis, depressive psychosis
  8. B6
    • Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine
    • Coenzyme in transamination and decarboxylation
    • of amino acids and glycogen phosphorylase; modulation of steroid hormone action
    • Deficiency: Disorders of amino acid metabolism, convulsions
  9. Folic acid
    • Coenzyme in transfer of one-carbon fragments
    • Deficiency: megaloblastic anemia
  10. B12
    • cobalamin
    • Coenzyme in transfer of one-carbon fragments and
    • metabolism of folic acid
    • deficiency: pernicious anemia (megaloblastic anemia with degeneration of spinal cord)
  11. Pantothenic acid
    • Functional part of CoA & acyl carrier protein: FA synthesis and metabolism
    • Deficiency: Peripheral nerve damage ("burning foot syndrome")
  12. Biotin (H)
    • Coenzyme in carboxylation reactions in
    • gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis; regulation of cell cycle
    • Deficiency: Impaired fat and carbohydrate metabolism,
    • dermatitis
  13. Vitamin C
    • Ascorbic acid
    • Coenzyme in hydroxylation of proline and lysine
    • in collagen synthesis; antioxidant; enhances absorption of Fe
    • Deficiency: scruvy, impaired wound healing, subcutaneous hemorrhage
Card Set
micronutrients wk4