What was humanism? What topics did it revive?
- Humanism was the belief that an individual was important due to his or her personal function. Less emphasis was put on groups.
- It popularized history, literature, and philosophy. It brought back Greek art and put less (but still a lot) emphasis on Christianity.
Humanists enjoyed a simple or lavish lifestyle (pick one).
How did art patrons help develop Renaissance ideas?
They contributed to artists who spread their works. The patrons also spread their fame throughout the community.
What led to the beginning of the Renaissance in northern Europe?
- Growing population
- Wealthy urban merchants
- Wealth-spreading trade
Who wrote about the Utopian society?
Who lead the Reformation? Under which branch of the Christian church did it occur?
- Martin Luther
- The Roman Catholic Church
What conditions incited the Reformation?
- Corrupt leaders
- An uneducated, incompetent lower clergy
What were the 95 theses?
A document written by Luther that attacked Johann Tetzel's selling of indulgences (salvation for money).
When the Pope and Emperor of Rome realized Luther was a threat, what branch of religion was started?
The Lutherans (protestants)
Why did England convert to Protestantism?
The King Henry VIII wanted babies, and the Pope wouldn't annul his marriage.
Name some aspects of Renaissance art. (there are a lot)
- Portraits for preservation/self-glory
- Detailed, technique-laden works with perspective and hidden meanings
- Proverbial messages hidden in the paintings
- Large crowds were depicted
- Things were shown at their best (not much disorder(
- There was a general pattern of symmetry and balance
- The figures were anatomically correct (this is humanism)
- Religion and riches were portrayed in tandem
- Artists had apprentices who learned the techniques
How did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
- There were preexisting influences from Greece and Rome
- They traded with the Arabs so they had wealth and culture (they then became patrons)
- Rome, Naples, Florence, Venicee, Milan, and Genoa had huge banks (the Medici Family)
- They had factories and urban centers (they mostly avoided the whole feudalism)
When Machiavelli was thrown out by the Medici family (who were earlier thrown out by Machiavelli), what happened?
He wrote The Prince and dedicated it to the Medici family. They said, "Tough shit, we don't care about you, go burn in hell." <-that's an exact quote btdubs
What was the message in The Prince?
It told how to obtain and retain power.
What did John Wycliffe say about tithing?
He said that it was optional, like alms, because the church leader may be corrupt.
What did John Huss of Bohemia say about the Papacy?
They were similar to the emperors before them, and they obtained their power from these same people.
What did Girolamo Savonarola say about the upper clergy?
They were corrupt.
What happened to Wycliffe, Savonarola, and Huss?
Wycliffe lived, the others died.
The clergy did not support the church. This showed that the system was failing from within. What was the Babylonian Captivity?
The French King and the Pope were feuding. The king captured the Pope, freed him, and the Pope promptly died. The new Pope, who was French, moved the Papacy to France.
Describe the changing relationship between the church councils, the pope, and the king.
The councils gained power over the pope, and because the king elected the councils, he had, essentially, power over the king.
Why did the middle class oppose the church?
The middle class gained power, and they were mostly traders and manufacturers. They disliked the frivolous use of their tithes, and the numerous church holidays made them pay their employees with out receiving any labor in return.
How did the printing press bring about the Reformation?
It spread new ideas and prevented the church from censoring literature.
As the Reformation started, the pope lost _____________.
Power and credibility
What did Edward II, the Holy Roman Empire, and the English Parliament say about the church?
The king and citizens could usurp much of the pope's power by electing bishops and bypassing the church in political decisions.
Heaven, _________, hell
How could you save yourself from doing too much time in purgatory?
By buying indulgences (salvation cards/safe conduct)
Who opposed indulgences?
People could buy _________ (not indulgences) in the church. This lead to _________.
- The devaluation of religious authority
Describe the three types of communion/eucharist.
- Transubstantiation-Catholics-the bread and wine ARE Jesus' body and blood.
- Consubstantiation-Lutherans-His body and blood are spiritually present in the wine and bread.
- Calvinists said-meh, it's just symbolism.
Describe the differences between Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinistic salvation rules.
- Catholic-Good deeds gets you to heaven
- Lutheran-Faith gets you to heaven, and with faith come good deeds
- Calvinism-Predestination (but it was still reflected in the way you comported yourself)
What did the Jesuits do for the Catholic faith?
They spread their teachings and kept them relevant and alive.