Basis of life

  1. Metabolism
    sum of all chemical rxn; catabolic rx (break down of large chemicals and release of energy) anabolic build up large chemicals
  2. Ingestion
    the acquisition of food and other raw materials
  3. assimilation
    building up of new tissues from digested food materials
  4. respiration
    the consumption of oxygen by the body. Cells use oxygen to convert glucose into ATP
  5. All living things are composed primarily of the elements ____
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen , sulfur, and phosphorus
  6. What is the composition of carbohydrates? and ratio
    carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
  7. Monosaccharides
    like glucose and fructose are single sugar subunits: D-fructose, D-glucose, D galactose, D-mannose
  8. Disaccharide
    such as maltose and sucrose joined by two monosaccharide via dehydration synthesis
  9. Polysaccharides are form by what reaction? broken down?
    form by dehydration and broken down by hydrolysis
  10. hydrophobic and acidic location on lipids
    hydrophobic: long carbon chains; acidic: carboxylic acid group
  11. composition of lipids
    3 fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol backbone
  12. Lipid derivatives functions
    food storage in animals, release more energy per gram weight, insulation and protection
  13. Name 5 lipid derivatives
    phospholipids, waxes, steroids, carotenoids, porphyrins
  14. composition of phospholipids
    glycerol, two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing alcohol
  15. composition of waxes
    esters of fatty acids and monohydroxylic alcohols
  16. composition of steroids
    three fused cyclohexane rings and one fused cyclopentane ring
  17. composition of carotenoids
    fatty acid-like carbon chains containing conjugated double bonds and carrying 6-membered carbons rings at each end
  18. composition of porphyrins
    four joined pyrrole rings and often complexed with a metal
  19. Proteins
    • composed of C,H,O, and N but may contain P and S
    • polymers of amino acids, joined by peptide bonds through dehydration rxn
  20. Protein structures classification
    • Simple protein - entirely amino acids
    • albumins and globulins - globular in nature, functional proteins that act as carriers or enzymes
    • scleroproteins - fibrous in nature and act as a structural protein (ex: collegen)
    • conjugated proteins - simple protein + at least one nonprotein fraction
Card Set
Basis of life
basis of life