What makes a compound organic?
contains carbon(C) and hydrogen(H)
What is the function of carbohydrates?
short term energy
What are two functions of protein?
1. growth and repair
What are two functions of lipids?
1. long term energy
What are three examples of carbohydrates?
What are three examples of lipids?
What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
What are the building blocks of proteins?
What are the building blocks of lipids?
3 fatty acids and glycerol
fatty acid structure
amino acid structure
What is the difference between a lipid and a carbohydrate?
A carbohydrate contains a definate ratio: 2 hydrogens(H) for every oxygen (O)
What makes a protein so different from carbohydrates and lipids?
it contains nitrogen(N)
What functional group(s) is/are found in glucose?
What functional group(s) is/are found in amino acids?
amino and carboxyl
What functional group(s) is/are found in fatty acids?
What functional group(s) is/are found in glycerol?
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
What does nucleic acids and it's nucleotides make up?
DNA and RNA
What elements make up nucleic acids?
carbon(C), hydrogen(H), oxygen(O), phospherous(P), and nitrogen(N)
What is a monosaccharide? What is one example?
1 glucose : glucose
What is a disaccharide? What is one example?
2 glucose : lactose
What is a polysaccharide? What is one example?
many glucose : cellulose
What is a monopeptide?
1 amino acid
What is a dipeptide?
2 amino acids
What is a polypeptide?
many amino acids
What holds monosaccharides together?
What holds monopeptides together?
What is hydrolysis?
the break down of large molecules to smalll molecules using water
What is dehydration synthesis?
a larger molecule is formed from smaller molecules and water is released
What is starch used for?
Storage in plants
What does chitin make up?
exoskeletons of insects
What does cellulose make up?
cell membrane and cell wall in plants
What is glycogen used for?
storage in animals
What can a lipid make up?
What is an enzyme?
a protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions
What is a substrate?
what enzymes act upon
Where does an enzyme "attach" to a substrate?
at the active site
What helps enzymes?
What are 3 factors that affect the rate of reaction of enzymes?
temperature, pH, and concentration (amount) of enzymes or substrates
What happens to the enzyme if the pH or temperature is not right?
it may denature
What will happen to the amount of enzyme activity if the enzyme/ concentration went up?
it would increase then level off
What is an indicator?
a chemical that changes color when in the presence of a specific substance
What ate the 2 indicators for carbohydrates?
iodine and benedict's solution
In a liver what is the enzyme called that breaks down hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)?
catalase or peroxidase